Núm. 46 (2021): Ecología-Mundo, Capitaloceno y Acumulación Global - Parte 1
Artículos

Bonos verdes en la ecología-mundo: capital, naturaleza y poder en la expansión financiarizada de la industria forestal en Brasil

Iagê Miola
Universidad Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP
Biografía
Gabriela de Oliveira Junqueira
University of São Paulo (USP)
Biografía
Flávio Prol
Brazilian Center for Analysis and Planning (CEBRAP)
Biografía
Marcela Vecchione-Gonçalves
Center for Advanced Amazonian Studies of the Federal University of Pará (UFPA)
Biografía
Tomaso Ferrando
Institute of Development Policy, University of Antwerp
Biografía
Héctor Herrera
University of Antwerp
Biografía
Número 46
Publicado febrero 28, 2021

Palabras clave:

economía verde, bonos verdes, financiarización de la naturaleza, industria forestal, ecología-mundo
Cómo citar
Miola, I., Junqueira, G. de O., Prol, F., Vecchione-Gonçalves, M., Ferrando, T., & Herrera, H. . (2021). Bonos verdes en la ecología-mundo: capital, naturaleza y poder en la expansión financiarizada de la industria forestal en Brasil. Relaciones Internacionales, (46), 161-180. https://doi.org/10.15366/relacionesinternacionales2021.46.009

Resumen

El presente artículo parte de un enfoque de ecología-mundo para develar y dar sentido a los bonos verdes como una herramienta en manos de las finanzas climáticas, que reproduce los patrones globales de desarrollo desigual y acumulación capitalista. A través del estudio de las emisiones de bonos verdes dirigidas a financiar el sector forestal en Brasil, se revisa cómo la dinámica ideológica, técnica y de poder detrás de dichas emisiones desencadena la acumulación de capital, y produce una construcción de la naturaleza financiarizada y subordinada. Actualmente, los bonos verdes son una de las formas más destacadas de la economía verde para intentar conciliar la “sostenibilidad ambiental” con el crecimiento dentro de los parámetros de las finanzas. Como instrumentos de deuda cuyos ingresos van destinados a financiar proyectos con supuestos beneficios ambientales, los bonos verdes ocupan ya una posición central en la narrativa y el marco político de la economía verde. El artículo reseña los bonos verdes, como uno de los temas financieros relevantes del momento, y describe las promesas y tendencias de emisiones de estos bonos, tanto en los países del Norte y del Sur, y específicamente en Brasil. Al observar las emisiones concretas en el sector forestal brasileño, el artículo muestra cómo la acumulación de capital a través de bonos verdes se asocia a coproducir la naturaleza en formas problemáticas, tanto social como ambientalmente, generando deuda no solo financiera, sino esencialmente social y ecológica. Con una combinación de enfoques micro y macro del tema, el artículo explica cómo los bonos verdes en el sector forestal exigen un arreglo institucional que combine el apoyo estatal y la gobernanza privada de la deuda en sus ámbitos financiero, social y ecológico, para que la acumulación se produzca en tales términos. Se sugiere, sin pretensión de universalidad, que el caso de los bonos verdes en el sector forestal en Brasil es un fenómeno financiero y ecológico novedoso, e ilumina el rompecabezas del capitalismo en la trama de la vida y el análisis de las nuevas fronteras de la miseria planificada.

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