Vol. 12 Núm. 2 (2014)
Artículos

Maestro, Aula y Aprendizaje en América Latina. Los Datos del SERCE

Publicado enero 1, 2016

Palabras clave:

Calidad, Eficacia, Cambio, Mejora, Equidad, Innovación

Resumen

Los objetivos de este trabajo son identificar y dimensionar el efecto de algunos factores escolares sobre el rendimiento de los alumnos de sexto grado de primaria en 16 países de América Latina. Se analizaron datos provenientes de los cuestionarios del alumno, del docente y del establecimiento, y de las pruebas de Matemática y Lectura del SERCE. Se utilizaron modelos multinivel con tres niveles (país, aula, alumno). Las variables escolares se agruparon en cinco subconjuntos: recursos, características del docente, clima escolar, práctica educativa y oportunidad de aprendizaje. El “control” estadístico incluyó variables socioeconómicas y académicas del alumno y del aula. Se constató una alta incidencia de los factores escolares sobre los rendimientos en ambas pruebas. En gran medida, esa incidencia se yuxtapone con el efecto de los condicionantes contextuales extra- escolares. Los recursos escolares muestran el mayor efecto bruto, mientras que el clima escolar ostenta el mayor efecto neto.

Citas

Abedi, J., Courtney, M., Leon, L., Kao, J. y Azzam, T. (2006). English language learners and math achievement: A study of opportunity to learn and language accommodation. Technical Report 702, National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards and Student Testing (CRESST). Los Angeles, CA: University of California.

Aguirre-Muñoz, Z. y Boscardin, C. (2008). Opportunity to learn and english learner achievement: Is increased content exposure beneficial? Journal of Latinos and Education, 7(3), 186-205.

Aitkin, M. y Longford, N. (1986). Statistical modelling issues in school effectiveness. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 149, 1-42.

Alexander, K. y Pallas, A. (1984). Curriculum reform and school performance: An evaluation of the new basics. American Journal of Education, 92, 391-420.

Anderson, L.W. (1987). The classroom environment study: Teaching for learning. Comparative Education Review, 31(1), 69-87.

Askew, M. y William, D. (1995). Recent Research in Mathematics Education 5-16. Londres: Office for Standards in Education.

Berliner, D. (1984). The half-full glass: A review of research on teaching. En P.L. Hosford (ed.), Using What We Know about Teaching (pp. 58-71). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Brophy, J. y Good, T.L. (1986). Teacher behavior and student achievement. In M. C. Wittorck (ed.), Handbook of Research on Teaching (pp. 328-375). Nueva York: Macmillan.

Bryk, A. y Raudenbush, S. (1992). Hierarchical Linear Models for Social and Behavioral Research: Applications and Data Analysis Methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Burstein, L. (Ed.) (1993). The IEA Study of Mathematics III: Student Growth and Classroom Processes. Tarrytown, NY: Pergamon Press.

Carroll, J.B. (1963). A model of school learning. Teachers College Record, 64(8), 723-733.

Cervini, R. (2012). El “efecto escuela” en países de América Latina: reanalizando los datos del SERCE. Archivos Analíticos de Políticas Educativas, 20(39), art 6.

Clotfelter, C., Ladd, H. y Vigdor, J. (2010). Teacher credentials and student achievement in high school: A cross-subject analysis with student fixed effects. Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, 45(3), 34-56.

Clotfelter, C., Ladd, H. y Vigdor, J. (2007a). Teacher credentials and student achievement: Longitudinal analysis with student fixed effects. Economics of Education Review, 26(6), 673-682.

Clotfelter, C., Ladd, H. y Vigdor, J. (2007b). How and why do teacher credentials matter for student achievement? Working Paper 2. Recuperado de http://ideas.repec.org/s/nbr.html

Coleman, J., Hoffer, T. y Kilgore, S. (1982). High School Achievement: Public, Catholic and Private Schools Compared. Nueva York: Basic Book.

Cooley, W. y Leinhardt, G. (1980). The instructional dimensions study. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 2(1), 7-25.

Cooper, H., Robinson, J. y Patall, E. (2006). Does homework improve academic achievement? A synthesis of research: 1987-2003. Review of Educational Research, 76(1), 1-62.

Cotton, K. (1995). Effective Schooling Practices: A Research Synthesis. 1995 Updated. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.

Creemers, B.P.M. (1994a). The effective classroom. Londres: Cassell.

Creemers, B.P.M. (1994b). The history, value and purpose of school effectiveness studies. En D. Reynolds, B. Creemers, P. Nesselrodt, E. Schaffer, S. Stringfield y C. Teddlie, Advances in School Effectiveness Research and Practice (pp. 9-23). Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Creemers, B.P.M. y Kyriakides, L. (2008). The Dynamics of Educational Effectiveness: A Contribution to Policy, Practice and Theory in Contemporary Schools. Londres: Routledge.

Davies G. y Thomas, M. (1992). Escuelas eficaces y profesores eficientes. Madrid: La Muralla.

De Angelis, K. y Talbert, J. (1995, abril). Social inequalities in high school mathematic achievement: Cognitive dimensions and learning opportunities. Comunicación presentada en The Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. San Francisco, CA.

Dettmers, S., Trautwein, U. y Lüdtke, O. (2009). The relationship between time and achievement is not universal: evidence from multilevel analysis in 40 countries. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 20(4), 375-405.

Doyle, W. (1986). Classroom organization and management. En M.C. Wittrock (ed.), Handbook of Research on Teaching (pp. 392-431). Nueva York: Macmillan.

Duarte, J., Bos, M. y Moreno, M. (2011a). Los docentes, las escuelas y los aprendizajes escolares en América latina: un estudio regional usando la base de datos del SERCE. Nota Técnica IDB-TN-267. Recuperado de http://www.iadb.org/

Duarte, J., Gargiulo, C. y Moreno, M. (2011b). Infraestructura escolar y aprendizaje en la educación básica: un análisis a partir del SERCE. Nota Técnica IDB-TN-277. Recuperado de http://www.iadb.org/

Duarte, J., Bos, M. y Moreno, M. (2009). Inequidad en los aprendizajes escolares en Latinoamérica. Nota Técnica 4. Recuperado de http://www.iadb.org/

Elliot, M. (1998). School finance and opportunities to learn: Does money well spent enhance students’ achievement? Sociology of Education, 71(3), 223-245.

Galton, M. (1987). An ORACLE chronicle: A decade of classroom research. Teaching and Teacher Education, 3(4), 299-313.

Gau, S. (1997, marzo). The distrbution and the effects of opportunity to learn on mathemathics achievement, Comunicación presentada en The Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Chicago.

Goldhaber, D. (2006). Everyone's doing it, but what does teacher testing tell us about teacher effectiveness? Journal of Human Resources, 42(4), 765-794.

Goldhaber, D. (2007). Can Teacher Quality Be Effectively Assessed? National Board Certification as a Signal of Effective Teaching. Review of Economics and Statictics, 89(1), 134-150.

Goldstein, H. (1995). Multilevel statistical models. Londres: Edward Arnold.

Hill, H., Rowan, B. y Ball, D. (2005). Effects of teachers’ mathematical knowledge for teaching on student achievement. American Educational Research Journal, 42(2), 371-406.

Husen, T. (1967). Internationsl Study of Achievement in Mathematics: A Comparison of Twelve Systems. Nueva York: Wiley.

Kyriakides, L. y Creemers, B.P.M. (2009). The effects of teacher factors on different outcomes: two studies testing the validity of the dynamic model. Effective Education, 1(1), 61-85.

Kyriakides, L. y Creemers, B.P.M. (2008). Using a multidimensional approach to measure the impact of classroom level factors upon student achievement: A study testing the validity of the dynamic model. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 19(2), 183-306.

Kosir, K. (2005). The influence of teacher's classroom management style on pupils' self regulative behaviour. Studia Psychologica, 47(2), 119-143.

Levine, D.U. y Lezotte, L.W. (1990). Unusually effective schools; a review and analysis of research and practice. Madison, WI: National Center for School Research and Development.

LLECE (2010). Factores asociados al logro cognitivo de los estudiantes de América Latina y el Caribe. Santiago: OREALC/UNESCO Santiago.

McDonnell, L.M., Burstein, L., Ormseth, T., Catterall, J. y Moody, D. (1990). Discovering what Schools Really Teach: Designing Improved Coursework Indicators (Report N° R3886). Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.

Metzler, J. y Woessmann, L. (2010). The impact of teacher subject knowledge on student achievement: Evidence from within-teacher within-student variation. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor.

Muijs, D. y Reynolds, D. (2000). School effectiveness and teacher effectiveness in mathematics: Some preliminary findings from the evaluation of the mathematics enhancement programme. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 11(3), 273-303.

Muijs, D., Campbell, J., Kyriakides, L. y Robinson, W. (2005). Making the case for differentiated teacher effectiveness: An overview of research in for key areas. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 16(1), 51-70.

Murillo, J. (Coord.) (2007). Investigación iberoamericana sobre eficacia escolar. Bogotá: Convenio Andrés Bello.

Muthén, B., Kao, C. y Burstein, L. (1991). Instructionally sensitive psychometrics: Application of a new IRT-based detection technique to mathematics achievement test items. Journal of Educational Measurement, 28(1), 1-22.

Muthén, B., Huang, L., Jo, B., Khoo, S., Goff, G., Novak, J. y Shih, J. (1995). Opportunity-to-learn effects on achievement: Analytical aspects. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 17(3), 371-403.

Osafehinti, I. (1987). Opportunity-to-learn and achievement in secondary school mathematics. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 13(2), 193-197.

Porter, A.C. (2002). Measuring the content of instruction: Uses in research and practice. Educational Research, 31(7), 3-14.

Rohrbeck, C.A., Ginsburg-Block, M.D., Fantuzzo, J.W. y Miller, T.R. (2003). Peer-assisted learning interventions with elementary school students: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(2), 240-257.

Rosenshine, B. (1986). Synthesis of research on explicit teaching. Educational Leadership, 43(7), 60-69.

Rosenshine, B. y Stevens, R. (1986). Teaching Functions. In M.C. Wittrock (Ed.). Handbook of Research on Teaching (pp. 376-391). Nueva York: Macmillan.

Sammons, P., Hillman, J. y Mortimore, P. (1995). Key Characteristics of Effective Schools: A review of school effectiveness research. Londres: Office for Standards in Education.

Scheerens, J. y Bosker, R. (1997). The Foundation of Educational Effectiveness. Oxford:Pergamon.

Schmidt, W.H. (1992). The distribution of instructional time to mathematical content: One aspect of opportunity to learn. En L. Burstein (ed.), The IEA Study of Mathematics III: Student Growth and Classroom Processes (pp. 129-145). Nueva York: Pergamon Press.

Schmidt, W. (1983). High school course-taking: A study of variation. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 15(2), 167-182.

Seidel, T. y Shavelson, R.J. (2007). Teaching effectiveness research in the past decade: The role of theory and research design in disentangling meta-analysis results. Review of Educational Research, 77(4), 454-499.

Slavin, R.E. (1983). When does cooperative learning increase student-achievement? Psychological Bulletin, 94(3), 429-445.

Slavin, R.E. y Cooper, R. (1999). Improving intergroup relations: Lessons learned from cooperative learning programs. Journal of Social Issues, 55(4), 647-663.

Slee, R., Weiner, G. y Tomlinson, S. (1998). School Effectiveness for Whom? Londres: Falmer Press.

Stevens, F.I. (1993). Applying an opportunity-to-learn framework to the investigation of the effects of teaching practices via secondary analyses of multiple-case-study summary data. The Journal of Negro Education, 62(3), 232-248.

Stevens, F.I., Wultz, L. y Bailey, M. (1998). Teachers’ Evaluations of Sustainability of Opportunity to Learn (OTL) Assesment Strategies. A National Survey of Classroom Teachers in Large Urban School Districts. Philadelphia, PA: Center for Research in Human Development and Education.

Stevenson, H. y Stigler, J. (1992). The Learning Gap: Why Are Schools Are Failing and What We Can Learn from Japanese and Chinese Education. Nueva York: Summit Books.

Teodorovic, J. (2011). Classroom and school factors related to student achievement: what works for students? School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 22(2), 215-236.

Thompson, D. y Senk, S. (2006, noviembre). Methods for controlling for opportunity-to-learn. Comunicación presentada en The Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Mérida, México.

Thrupp, M. (2001). Sociological and political concerns about school effectiveness research: Time for a new research agenda. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 12(1), 7-40.

Thrupp, M., Lauder, H. y Robinson, T. (2002). School composition and peer effects. International Journal of Educational Research, 37, 483-504.

Trautwein, U. (2007). The homework-achievement relation reconsidered: Differentiating homework time, homework frequency and homework effort. Learning and Instruction, 17(3), 372-388.

Trautwein, U., Köller, O., Schmitz, B. y Baumert, J. (2002). Do homework assignments enhance achievement? A multilevel analysis in 7th grade mathematics. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 27(1), 26-50.

Walberg, H.J. (1985). Synthesis of research on teaching. En M.C. Wittrock (ed.), Handbook of Research on Teaching (85-102). Washington: American Educational Research Association.

Walber, H. y Shanahan, J. (1983). High school effects on individual student. Educational Researcher, 15(3), 4-9.

Wang, J. (1998). Opportunity to learn: The impacts and policy implications. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 20(3), 137-156.

Wang, J. y Goldschmidt, P. (1999). Opportunity to learn, language proficiency, and immigrant status effects on mathematics achievement. Journal of Educational Research, 93(2), 101-111.

Winfield, L.F. (1987). Teachers' estimates of test content covered in first grade reading and achievement. Elementary School Journal, 87(4), 437-454.