Núm. 24 (2018)

Islamofobia queerizada y resistencias musulmanas queer en tiempos de homonacionalismo // Queered Islamophobia and Queer Muslim forms of Resistance in times of Homonationalism

Daniel Ahmed Fernández
Dptos. Antropología Social y Estudios Árabes e Islámicos y Estudios Orientales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Publicado junio 27, 2018



El presente artículo analiza el homonacionalismo desde el cuestionamiento a los discursos culturalistas dicotómicos que dicho fenómeno plantea. En primer lugar, se describen las vinculaciones históricas entre diversidad sexual y de género, racismo y neoliberalismo. A continuación, se aborda la emergencia de un proceso de queerización de la islamofobia nutrido por la instrumentalización neoliberal de los sujetos queer para promover la representación LGBTQ+fóbica del islam. Acto seguido, se evidencia cómo la relación entre las políticas LGBTQ+ transnacionales y la islamofobia queerizada ha provocado un rechazo hacia lo LGBTQ+ en el marco de los Estados arabo-islámicos postcoloniales. Finalmente, se ahonda en el análisis de las identidades musulmanas queer contemporáneas poniendo el foco en sus formas diferenciadas de resistencia frente a los discursos de oposición entre islam y diversidad sexo-genérica, tanto los provenientes de interpretaciones tradicionalistas del islam, como los islamófobos propios del homonacionalismo.

Palabras clave: islamofobia, neoliberalismo, homonacionalismo, queer, resistencia.


This article examines homonationalism through the questioning of the dichotomic culturalist discourses that such phenomenon poses. Firstly, it describes the historical connections between gender and sexual diversity, racism and neoliberalism. Next, it addresses the emergence of a process of queerization of Islamophobia, nourished by the neoliberal instrumentalization of queer subjects with the objective of promoting an LGBTQ+phobic depiction of Islam. Thereafter, it calls attention to how the combination of transnational LGBTQ+ politics and queered Islamophobia caused a rejection towards the LGBTQ+ within the context of Arab-Islamic postcolonial states. Finally, it delves into the analysis of contemporary queer Muslim identities, focusing on their differentiated forms of resistance in the face of the discourses that oppose Islam and gender and sexual diversity, both of those coming from traditionalist interpretations of Islam, and those coming from homonationalism.

Keywords: Islamophobia, neoliberalism, homonationalism, queer, resistance.



ABDULHADI, Rabab (2010): “Sexualities and the Social Order in Arab and Muslim Communities”, en HABIB, Samar (ed.): Islam and Homosexuality, Vols. 1 and 2, Santa Barbara, Praeger.

ABRAHAM, Ibrahim (2010): “Everywhere You Turn You Have to Jump into Another Closet: Hegemony, Hybridity, and Queer Australian Muslims”, en HABIB, Samar (ed.): Islam and Homosexuality, Vols. 1 and 2, Santa Barbara, Praeger.

ABRAHAM, Ibrahim (2009): “Out to Get Us: Queer Muslims and the Clash of Sexual Civilization in Australia”, Contemporary Islam, 3 (1), pp. 79-97.


ABU-LUGHOD, Lila (1990): “The Romance of Resistance: Tracing Transformations of Power Through Bedouin Women”, American Ethnologist, 1 (17), pp. 41-55.


ADAMCZYK, Amy y PITT, Cassady (2009): “Shaping attitudes about homosexuality: The role of Religion and Cultural Context”, Social Science Research, 38, pp. 338-351.


AHMED, Sara (2011): “Problematic Proximities: Or Why Critiques of Gay Imperialism Matter”, Feminist Legal Studies, 19, pp. 119-132.


ALI, Kecia (2006): Sexual Ethics & Islam. Feminist Reflections on Qur’an, Hadith, and Jurisprudence, Oxford, Oneworld.

ASAD, Talal; BROWN, Wendy; BUTLER, Judith y MAHMOOD, Saba (2013): Is Critique Secular? Blasphemy, Injury, and Free Speech, California, University of California Press.

ASAD, Talal (2003): Formations of the Secular, Stanford, California, Stanford University Press.

ASAD, Talal (1993): Genealogies of Religion, London, The John Hopkins University Press.

ASAD, Talal (1986): The Idea of Anthropology of Islam, Washington DC, Georgetown University Press.

AWWAD, Julian (2010): “The Postcolonial Predicament of Gay Rights in the Queer Boat Affair”, Communication and Critical/Cultural studies, 7, pp. 318-366.


BABAYAN, Kathryn y NAJMABADI, Afsaneh (2008): (ed.) Islamic Sexualities: Translations across Temporal Geographies of Desire, Cambridge, Harvard University Press.

BARKER, Julia y SCHEELE, Meg-John (2017): Queer: A Graphic History, London, Icon Books.

BECKERS, Tilo (2010): “Islam and the Acceptance of Homosexuality: The Shortage of Socioeconomic Well-Being and Responsive Democracy”, en Habib, Samar (ed.): Islam and Homosexuality, Vols. 1 and 2, Santa Barbara, Praeger.

BERNSTEIN, Mary (2002): “Identities and Politics: Toward a Historical Understanding of the Lesbian and Gay Movement”, Social Science History, 26 (3), pp. 531–81.


BHABHA, Homi (1994): The Location of Culture, London, Routledge.

BLACKWOOD, Evelyn (2008): “Transnational Discourses and Circuits of Queer Knowledge in Indonesia”, GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, 14 (4), pp. 482–507.


BRACKE, Sarah (2012): “From saving women to saving gays: Rescue Narratives and their dis/continuities”, European Journal of Women’s Studies, 19, pp. 237-252.


BUTLER, Judith (1993): Bodies that Matter, London, Routledge.

BURNHAM, Linda (2004): “Sexual Domination in Uniform: an American Value”, War Times, 18, pp. 3-4.

CRENSHAW, Kimberle (1989): “Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory, and Antiracist Politics”, The University of Chicago Legal Forum, 140, pp. 139-167.

DE LAURETIS, Teresa (1990): “Queer Theory: Lesbian and Gay Sexualities”, Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies, 3, pp. 3-18.

DRUCKER, Peter. (2015): Warped. Gay Normativity and Queer Capitalism, Chicago, Haymarkets Books.

DUGGAN, Lisa (2002): “The New Homonormativity: The Sexual Politics of Neoliberalism”, en CASTRONOVO, Russ y NELSON, Dana (eds.) Materializing Democracy: Toward a Revitalized Cultural Politics, Durham y London, Duke University Press.


EL-ROUAYHEB, Khaled (2005): Before Homosexuality in the Arab-Islamic World, 1500-1800, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press.

FOUCAULT, Michel (1976): Histoire de la sexualité I (La Volonté de savoir), Paris, Éditions Gallimard.

FRASER, Nancy (1990): “Rethinking the Public sphere: A contribution to the Critique of Actually Existing Democracy”, Social Text, 25 (26), pp. 56-80.

GÖLE, Nilüfer (2007): Interpenetraciones: El islam y Europa, Barcelona, Bellaterra.

GÖLE, Nilüfer (2003): “The Voluntary Adoption of Islamic Stigma Symbols”, Social Research: An International Quarterly, 70 (3), pp. 809-828.

GÖLE, Nilüfer (2002): “Close Encounters: Islam, Modernity, and Violence”, Understanding September 11, New York, The New York Press, pp. 332-344.


GREENBERG, David (1988): The construction of Homosexuality, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

HABIB, Samar (2010): (ed.) Islam & Homosexuality, Santa Barbara, Praeger.

HABIB, Samar (2009): Arabo-Islamic Texts on Female Homosexuality (850 - 1780 A.D.), New York, Teneo Press.

HABIB, Samar (2007): Female Homosexuality in the Middle East, New York, Routledge.

HALBERSTAM, Jack (1998): Female Masculinity, Durham, Duke University Press.

HALPERIN, David (1997): Saint Foucault: Towards a Gay Hagiography, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

HAMZIC, Vanja (2016): Sexual and Gender Diversity in the Muslim World. History, Law and Vernacular Knowledge, London, I. B. Taurus & Co. Ltd.

HARITAWORN, Jin, TAUQUIR, Tamsila y ERDEM, Esra. (2008): “Gay Imperialism: Gender and Sexuality Discourse in the War on Terror”, Out of Place: Interrogating Silences in Queerness/Raciality, New York, UK: Raw Nerve Books, pp. 71-95.

HINE, Christine (2000): Virtual Ethnography, London, SAGE Publications.

HUNTINGTON Samuel, (1996): The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, New York, London, Toronto, and Sydney, Simon & Schuster.

JAHANGIR, Junaid y ABDULLATIF, Hussein (2016): Islamic Law and Muslim Same-Sex, London, Lexington Books.

JAMA, Afdhere (2013): Queer Jihad: LGBT Muslims on Coming Out, Activism, and the Faith, California, Oracle.

KUGLE, Scott (2014): Living Out Islam. Voices of Gay, Lesbian, and Transgender Muslims, New York, New York University Press.

KUGLE, Scott (2010): Homosexuality in Islam. Critical Reflection on Gay, Lesbian, and Transgender Muslims, London, Oneworld.

LANDRY, Donna (2011): “Queer Islam and New Historicism”, Cultural Studies, 25, pp. 147-163.


LEAK, Gary y FINKEN, Laura (2010): “The Relationship between the Constructs of Religiousness and Prejudice: A Structural Equation Model Analysis”, The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 21, pp. 43-62. https://doi.org/10.1080/10508619.2011.532448

MAHMOOD, Saba (2016): Religious difference in a secular age, New Jersey, Princeton University Press.

MAHMOOD, Saba (2005): Politics of Piety: The Islamic Revival and the Feminist Subject, New Jersey, Princetown University Press.

MARCUS, E. George (1995): “Ethnography in/of the world system: the emergence of multisited ethnography”, Annual Review of Anthropology, 24, pp. 95-117.


MASSAD, Joseph (2008): Desiring Arabs. Chicago and London, The University of Chicago Press.

MEER, Nasar (2010): Citizenship, Identity and the Politics of Multiculturalism: The Rise of Muslim Consciousness, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan.

MERNISSI, Fatima (2002): El harén político: el Profeta y las mujeres, Madrid, Ediciones del Oriente y del Mediterráneo.

MURRAY, Stephen y ROSCOE, Will (1997): Islamic Homosexualities. Culture, History, and Literature, New York, New York University Press.

PATAI, Richard (1979): The Arab Mind, Long Island NY, Hatherleigh Press.

PEACE, Timothy (2015): European Social Movements and Muslim Activism. Another World but with Whom?, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan.

PLUMMER, Ken (2005): “Critical Humanism and Queer Theory: Living with the Tensions”, en DENZIN, Norman y LINCOLN, Yvonna (eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research, London, SAGE, pp. 195-208.

PUAR, Jasbir (2013): “Rethinking Homonationalism”, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 45, pp. 336-39. https://doi.org/10.1017/S002074381300007X

PUAR, Jasbir (2007): Terrorist Assemblages: Homonationalism in Queer Time, Durham, Duke University Press.

RAHMAN, Momin (2015): “The Politics of LGBT Muslim Identities”, International Relations, 2 de abril, 2015, http://www.e-ir.info/2015/04/02/the-politics-of-lgbt-muslim-identities/

RAHMAN, Momin (2014): Homosexualities, Muslim Cultures and Modernity, London, Palgrave Macmillan.

RAHMAN, Momin (2010): “Queer as Intersectionality: Theorizing Gay Muslim Identities”, Sociology, 44, pp. 1-18.

ROWSON, Everett (1991): “The Effeminates of Early Medina”, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 111, pp. 671-93.

SAID, Edward (1981): Covering Islam, London, Routledge.

SAID, Edward (1979): Orientalism, New York, Vintage Books.

SCHULMAN, Sara (2012): Israel/Palestine and the Queer International, Durham, Duke University Press.

SCHMITT, Arno y SOFER, Jehoeda (1992): Sexuality and Erotism among Males in Moslem Societies, New York, Harrington Park Press.

SPIVAK, Gayatri (1988). "Can the subaltern speak?", Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture, en NELSON, Cary y GROSSBERG, Lawrence (eds.), Urbana: University of Illinois, pp. 271–313.

STEIN, Edward (1990): The Mismeasure of Desire: The Science, Theory, and Ethics of Sexual Orientation, New York, Routledge.

TRAUB, Valerie (2008): “The Past is a Foreign Country? The Times and Spaces of Islamic Sexuality Studies”, en BABAYAN, Kathryn y NAJMABADI, Afsaneh (eds.), Islamic Sexualities: Translations across Temporal Geographies of Desire, Cambridge, Harvard University Press.

TURNER, Bryan (2002): “Sovereignty and Emergency: Political Theology, Islam and America”, Theory, Culture and Society, 19, pp. 103-119.

TURNER, Bryan (1990): Theories of Modernity and Postmodernity, London, Sage.

WADUD, Amina (1999): Qur’an and Woman. Rereading the Sacred Text from a Woman’s Perspective, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

WHITAKER, Brian (2004): Unspeakable Love: Gay and Lesbian Life in the Middle East, London, Saqi.

WARNER, Michael (1999): The Trouble with Normal: Sex, Politics and the Ethics of Queer Life, New York, Free Press.

WRIGHT, Jennifer y ROWSON, Everett (1997): Homoerotism in Classical Arabic Literature, New York, Columbia University Press.

ZINE, Jasmin (2006): “Between Orientalism and fundamentalism: Muslim women and feminist resistance”, Muslim World Journal of Human Rights, 2, pp. 1-26. https://doi.org/10.2202/1554-4419.1080

ZINE, Jasmin (2004): “Staying on the Straight Path: A Critical Ethnography of Islamic Schooling in Ontario”. Disertación doctoral no publicada, Departamento de Sociología y Estudios de Equidad en Educación, Universidad de Toronto.