Núm. 19 (2015): Movilizaciones democráticas en el mundo árabe: el activismo social y político de los jóvenes
Artículos

Roles of organizations in socialization of youth leaders in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt) after Oslo

Abeer MUSLEH
Bethlehem University
Publicado diciembre 23, 2015

Resumen

Abstract:

This paper aims at studying the socialization of young people through organizations in the oPt, and accordingly how would that impact the forms of engagement and leadership they pick. This paper utilizes multiple case study and institutional ethnography research methods, in which it compares three types of organizations. Through this paper we found that founders had the upper hand in organizations, and youth positions even in the highest forms of organizations was limited. Yet the highest the position of youth in the organization, the more engaged they are, and their leadership skills became more institutional. Interaction among founders and youth leaders are essential especially through mentorship. Mentorship played a very important role in all organizations in building the identity and capacity of the youth leaders.

 

Key words

Organizations, Engagement, Leadership, Palestine, Socialization, Youth

Resumen: 

"El papel de las organizaciones en la socialización de los líderes juvéniles en los Territorios Palestinos Ocupados (TPO) desppués de Oslo" 

Este artículo estudia la socialización de los jóvenes a través de la participación en organizaciones sociales en los territorios palestinos ocupados, haciendo particular hincapié en cómo influyen los distintos tipos de participación y de liderazgo que adoptan. Se utilizan métodos de investigación propios del “múltiples casos de estudio” y de la “etnografía institucional”, para así comparar tres tipos de organizaciones. Mediante este trabajo, comprobamos que los fundadores de las organizaciones seguían ejerciendo el poder en las organizaciones, y que la posición de los jóvenes, incluso en las más complejas formas de organización,  se enfrentaba a serios límites. Así, cuanto más alta es la posición de los jóvenes en la organización, más intenso será su compromiso con ésta, y más institucional se convertirán sus recursos de liderazgo. La interacción entre los fundadores y los líderes jóvenes son esenciales especialmente a través de la tutela de los mentores. El mentor juega un papel muy importante en todas las organizaciones en la construcción de la identidad y la capacidad de los jóvenes líderes.

Palabras claves:

Organizaciones, Participación, Liderazgo, Palestina, Socialización, Juventud

 

Citas

CAMINO, Linda (2000): “Youth-Adult Partnerships: Entering New Territory in Community Work and Research”, Applied Developmental Science, 4, pp. 11-22.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S1532480XADS04Suppl_2

CAMINO, Linda (2005): “Pitfalls and promising practices of youth-adult partnerships: An evaluator's reflections”, Journal of Community Psychology, 33/1, pp. 75-85.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20043

CAMINO, Linda and ZELDIN, Sheperds (2002): “From Periphery to Center: Pathways for Youth Civic Engagement in the Day-To-Day Life of Communities”, Applied Developmental Science, 6/4, pp. 213-220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S1532480XADS0604_8

MACNEIL, Carole (2006): “Bridging generations: Applying adult leadership theories to youth leadership development”, New Directions for Youth Development, no 109, pp. 27-43.

COLLINS, John (2004): Occupied by memory the Intifada generation and the Palestinian state of emergency, New York, New York University Press.

DELGADO, Melvin and STAPLES, Lee (2007): Youth-Led Community Organizing : Theory and Action, Cary, NC, USA, Oxford University Press, Incorporated.

DIMAGGIO, Paul and Powell, WALTER (1983): “The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields”, American Sociological Review, 48/2, pp.147-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095101

FLANAGAN, Constance (2013): Teenage Citizens. The Political Theories of the Young, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

FREEDMAN, Marc (1993): The kindness of strangers : adult mentors, urban youth, and the new voluntarism, San Francsco, Jossey bass.

GAMBONE, Michelle; CAO Y, Hanh; LEWIS-CHARP, Heather; SIPE, Cynthia and LACOE, Joana. (2006): “Youth, Organizing, Identity-Support, and Youth Development Agencies as Avenues for Involvement”, Journal of Community Practice, 14(1/2), pp.235-253.

GREENWOOD, Royston, SUDDABY, Roy and HININGS, C. R. (2002), “Theorizing Change: The Role of Professional Associations in the Transformation of Institutionalized Fields”, Academy of Management Journal, 45/1, pp.58-80. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3069285

HAMMAMI, Rima (2000): “Palestinian NGOs Since Oslo: From NGO Politics to Social Movements?”, Middle East Report , 214, pp. 16-48.

HARDY, Cynthia and MAGUIRE, Steve (2008): “Institutional Enterpreneurship”, in GREENWOOD, Royston, OLIVER C., SUDDABY, Roy and SAHLIN, K (Eds.), The Sage Handbook of Organizational

Institutionalism, London, SAGE Publications Ltd, pp. 198-218.

http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781849200387.n8

HILAL, Jamil (2010): “The Polarization of the Palestinian Political Field”, Journal of Palestine Studies,39/3, pp. 24-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/jps.2010.XXXIX.3.24

JAD, Islah (2004): “The NGO-isation of Arab Womens Movements”, IDS Bulletin, 35, pp. 34-42.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1759-5436.2004.tb00153.x

JAD, Islah (2007): “NGOs: between buzzwords and social movements”, Journal Development in

Practice, 17/4, pp. 622-629.

JARRAR, Alam (2005): “The Palestinian NGO Sector: Development Perspectives”, Palestine – Israel

Journal of Politics, Economics & Culture, 12/1, pp.43-48.

KANAANA, Sharif (1993): “The role of women in Intifada legends”, Journal Contemporary Legend, 3, pp.37-61.

KLANDERMANS, Bert (1989): Organizing for change: social movement organizations in Europe and the United States, Greenwich, Conn. [u.a.] : JAI Pr.

KLATCH, Rebecca (1999): A generation divided: the new left, the new right, and the 1960s,

Berkeley, University of California press.

MCADAM, Dough (1992): “Gender as a Mediator of the Activist Experience: The Case of Freedom

Summer”, American Journal of Sociology, 97/5, pp. 1211-1240.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/229900

MEYER, David (2003): “Political Opportunity and Nested Institutions”, Social Movement Studies, 2/1, 17-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1474283032000062549

MEYER, David and MINKOFF, Debra (2004): “Conceptualizing Political Opportunity”, Journal Social Forces, 8/24, pp. 1457-1492.

MISCHE, Ann (2008): Partisan Publics: Communication and Contention across Brazilian Youth

Activist Networks, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

MORRIS, A. D. and STAGGENBORG, S. (2007): “Leadership in Social Movements”, The Blackwell

Companion to Social Movements, Blackwell Publishing Ltd., pp. 171-196.

POLLETTA, Francisca (2002): Freedom Is an Endless Meeting. Democracy in American Social

Movement, Chicago, Chicago University Press.

RABAH, J. (2009): Mappying of Organizations Working with Youth in the oPt , Ramallah: United

Nations Development Program.

RAHAL, Omar (2006): Youth, organization, structures, programs, and youth clubs, Ramallah:

Sharek Youth Forum.

RAHAL, Omar (2010a): Concerns of youth community development and the right to participate,

Ramallah, Human Rights and Democracy Media Center "SHAMS".

RAHAL, Omar (Ed.) (2009): Alshabab Qadaya w Mawdoat, Ramallah, Palestine: Center for Human Rights and Democratic Participation.

RAHAL, Omar (Ed.) (2010b): Youth, Community Development and good Governance, Ramallah,

Palestine: Human Rights and Democracy Media Center.

VERBA, Sidney; SCHOLOZMAN, K. Lehman and BRADY, Henry (1995): Voice and Equality: Civic

volunteerism in American politics, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

WASHINGTON, Boal and DAVIS, J. N. (2008), “Institutional Leadership: Past, Present, and Future”

in GREENWOOD, Royston; OLIVER, Cynthia, SUDDABY, Royston and SAHLIN, Kerstin (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Organizational Institutionalism, London, SAGE Publications Ltd, pp. 721-737.

http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781849200387.n31

WATTS, Roderick and FLANAGAN, Constance (2007): “Pushing the envelope on youth civic Engagement: A developmental and liberation psychology perspective”, Journal of Community Psychology, 35/6, pp. 779-792. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20178

WHEELER, Wendy (2000): “Emerging Organizational Theory and the Youth Development

Organization”, Journal of Applied Developmental Science, 4, pp.47-54.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S1532480XADS04Suppl_6

WHITTIER, Nancy (1997): “Political generations, micro-cohorts and the transformation of social

movements”, American Sociological Review, 62/5, pp. 760-778.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2657359

WYN, Johanna and WOODMAN, Dan (2006): “Generation, Youth and Social Change in Australia”, Journal of youth Studies, 9/5, pp.495-514.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13676260600805713

YATES, Miranda (1999): Roots of civic identity: international perspectives on community service

and activism in youth, Routledge, Cambridge.

YIN, Robert (1994): Case study research: design and methods, Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications.

YOUNISS, James and LEVINE, Peter (2009): Engaging young people in civic life, Nashville, Tenn,

Vanderbilt University Press.

YOUNISS, James; BALES, Susan; CHRISTMAS-BEST, Verona; DIVERSI, Marcelo; MCLAUGHLIN,

Milbery and SILBEREISEN, Rainer (February 2002): “Youth Civic Engagement in the Twenty-First

Century”, Journal of Research on Adolescence, 12/1, pp. 121-148.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1532-7795.00027

ZELDIN, Sheperd; PETROKUBI, July and MACNEIL, Carole (2008): “Youth-Adult Partnerships in Decision Making: Disseminating and Implementing an Innovative Idea into Established Organizations and Communities”, American Journal of Community Psychology, 41/3, pp. 262-277.

ZIMMERMAN, Kristen (2007): “Making Space, Making Change: Models for Youth-Led Social

Change Organizations”, Journal Children, Youth & Environments, 17/2, pp. 298-314