Oportunidades, Experiencias y Aprendizajes de las Matemáticas: México en PISA 2012

Aldo Bazán, Eduardo Backhoff, Rafael Turullols

Resumen


Con el propósito de conocer la relación entre las oportunidades de aprendizaje (otl) y el logro de las matemáticas de estudiantes mexicanos, y utilizando la base de datos de pisa 2012, se realizaron análisis de regresión múltiple y de modelamiento estructural, donde las variables predictoras fueron cuatro tipos de otl y el estatus socio económico y cultural de los estudiantes, y la variable a predecir fue la puntuación estandarizada en la prueba de pisa. Las otl analizadas fueron las siguientes: Experiencia con problemas conceptuales (tareas de álgebra), Experiencia con tareas que requieren procedimientos, Experiencia con razonamiento matemático puro (tareas de geometría), y Experiencias con aplicación de razonamiento matemático. Los resultados muestran que las otl relacionadas con tareas que requieren procedimientos predicen de manera positiva el logro en Matemáticas. Por el contrario, las otl relacionadas con razonamiento matemático puro, predicen de manera negativa el logro en matemáticas. Los resultados mostraron también que los alumnos mexicanos evaluados reportan tener experiencias más frecuentes en actividades de enseñanza que de evaluación. Asimismo, el índice de pisa sobre el estatus socioeconómico y cultural (escs) predijo significativamente y de manera positiva, al logro en matemáticas, aunque no cambió la relación que tienen las otl con el aprendizaje de las Matemáticas.

Descriptores: Oportunidades educacionales, Aprendizaje, Matemáticas, Rendimiento escolar.


Opportunities, Experiences and Learning of Mathematics: Mexico at PISA 2012 

In order to know the relationship between learning opportunities (otl) and achievement of the mathematics of Mexican students, and using the database of pisa 2012, multiple regression analysis and structural modeling were performed, where the predictor variables Were four types of otl and the socio-economic and cultural status of the students, and the variable to predict was the standardized score in the pisa test. The otl analyzed were the following: Experience with conceptual problems (algebra tasks), Experience with tasks that require procedures, 3) Experience with pure mathematical reasoning (geometry tasks), and 4) Experiences with mathematical reasoning. The results show that otl related tasks requiring procedures predict achievement in mathematics positively. On the contrary, otl related to pure mathematical reasoning predict achievement in mathematics negatively. The results also showed that the Mexican students evaluated report having more frequent experiences in teaching than evaluation activities. Likewise, the index of socioeconomic and cultural status (escs) predicted significantly, and positively, the achievement in mathematics, although it did not change the relationship that otl have with the learning of mathematics.

Keywords: Educational opportunities, Learning, Mathematics, Academic achievement.


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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15366/reice2017.15.3.004

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