Núm. 46 (2021): Ecología-Mundo, Capitaloceno y Acumulación Global - Parte 1
Artículos

Una reinterpretación eco-marxista de la abstracción formal en Economía Ecológica

Chandni Dwarkasing
DEPS University of Siena
Biografía
Gonzalo Vitón
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Biografía
Victoria Silva Sánchez
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Biografía
Número 46
Publicado febrero 28, 2021

Palabras clave:

Economía Ecológica, Sostenibilidad Fuerte, Excedente Ecológico, Teoría del Proceso de Trabajo, Mercantilización
Cómo citar
Dwarkasing, C., Vitón, G., & Silva Sánchez, V. (2021). Una reinterpretación eco-marxista de la abstracción formal en Economía Ecológica. Relaciones Internacionales, (46), 21–40. https://doi.org/10.15366/relacionesinternacionales2021.46.002

Resumen

El capital natural es un concepto teórico muy conocido que se utiliza para tener en cuenta el papel de la naturaleza en la producción económica. Su popularización entre los economistas en la década de 1990 ha dado lugar a opiniones divergentes sobre la relación entre el capital natural y el capital físico en las funciones de producción. Donde la sostenibilidad débil aboga por la sustituibilidad, la sostenibilidad fuerte requiere complementariedad. Esta distinción es también una de las muchas líneas a lo largo de las cuales se puede diferenciar la Economía Ambiental y de Recursos (EAR) de la Economía Ecológica (EE). Luego de una introducción al concepto de capital natural, abordamos el triunfo declarado de la sostenibilidad fuerte tanto en términos de evaluaciones científicas, que resaltan la necesidad de la conservación del capital natural, como el fomento de esfuerzos de conservación mediante la valoración monetaria. La investigación sobre las diversas trampas relacionadas con la valoración monetaria está más que presente en EE a través de la literatura sobre la mercantilización de la naturaleza. La contribución de este artículo es única ya que tiene como objetivo tanto reinterpretar como revisar la práctica de la formalización matemática en EE desde una perspectiva marxista ecológica. Al basarse en la ecología-mundo y la teoría del proceso de trabajo de Marx, se llega a las siguientes ideas: i) la valoración monetaria del capital natural crítico representa una estrategia de acumulación basada en la capitalización ii) la acumulación ecológicamente sostenida altera parcialmente el 'metabolismo material' mientras que la 'realización del propósito' no cambia y iii) la representación formal de las configuraciones economía-ecología a través de la función de producción solo captura la contribución de la naturaleza capitalizada y no considera la naturaleza apropiada. Concluimos que el marxismo ecológico proporciona ideas útiles que pueden ampliar los confines actuales de la formalización matemática de EE. Esto permitiría una descripción más completa de las configuraciones economía-ecología.

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Citas

Åkerman, M. (2005). What does ‘natural capital’ do? The role of metaphor in economic understanding of the environment. Environmental Education Research, 11(1), 37–52. doi: 10.1080/1350462042000328730

Arias-Arévalo, P., Gómez-Baggethun, E., Martín-López, B. y Pérez-Rincón, M. (2018). Widening the Evaluative Space for Ecosystem Services: A Taxonomy of Plural Values and Valuation Methods. Environmental Values, 27(1), 29–53. doi: 10.3197/096327118X15144698637513

Arriagada, R. y Perrings, C. (2013). Making payments for ecosystem services work. En Kumar, P., Thiaw I., and Barker, T. (Eds.). Values, payments and institutions for ecosystem management a developing country perspective (pp. 16–57). Elgar.

Ayres, R. U., van den Bergh, J. C. J. M. y Gowdy, J. M. (1998). Viewpoint: Weak versus Strong Sustainability (Working Paper No. 98-103/3). Recuperado de: https://www.econstor.eu/handle/10419/85599 (12.11.2019).

Bayrak, M. M. y Marafa, L. M. (2016). Ten Years of REDD+: A Critical Review of the Impact of REDD+ on Forest-Dependent Communities. Sustainability, 8(7), 620. doi: 10.3390/su8070620

Beder, S. (2011). Environmental economics and ecological economics: The contribution of interdisciplinarity to understanding, influence and effectiveness. Environmental Conservation, 38(2), 140–150. doi: 10.1017/S037689291100021X

Berkes, F. y Folke, C. (1992). A systems perspective on the interrelations between natural, human-made and cultural capital. Ecological Economics, 5(1), 1–8. doi: 10.1016/0921-8009(92)90017-M

Bermejo, R. (2014). The Commodification of Nature and Its Consequences. En Bermejo, R. (Ed.). Handbook for a Sustainable Economy (pp. 19–33). Springer Netherlands. Doi: 10.1007/978-94-017-8981-3_2

Boerema, A., Rebelo, A. J., Bodi, M. B., Esler, K. J. y Meire, P. (2017). Are ecosystem services adequately quantified? Journal of Applied Ecology, 54(2), 358–370. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12696

Börner, J., Baylis, K., Corbera, E., Ezzine-de-Blas, D., Honey-Rosés, J., Persson, U. M. y Wunder, S. (2017). The Effectiveness of Payments for Environmental Services. World Development, 96, 359–374. doi: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.03.020

Bumpus, A. G. y Liverman, D. M. (2008). Accumulation by Decarbonization and the Governance of Carbon Offsets. Economic Geography, 84(2), 127–155. doi: 10.1111/j.1944-8287.2008.tb00401.x

Cabral, I., Keim, J., Engelmann, R., Kraemer, R., Siebert, J. y Bonn, A. (2017). Ecosystem services of allotment and community gardens: A Leipzig, Germany case study. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 23, 44–53. doi: 10.1016/j.ufug.2017.02.008

Calvet-Mir, L., Corbera, E., Martin, A., Fisher, J. y Gross-Camp, N. (2015). Payments for ecosystem services in the tropics: A closer look at effectiveness and equity. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 14, 150–162. doi: 10.1016/j.cosust.2015.06.001

Castree, N. (2003). Commodifying what nature? Progress in Human Geography, 27(3), 273–297. doi: 10.1191/0309132503ph428oa

Common, M. y Perrings, C. (1992). Towards an ecological economics of sustainability. Ecological Economics, 6(1), 7–34. doi: 10.1016/0921-8009(92)90036-R

Coralie, C., Guillaume, O. y Claude, N. (2015). Tracking the origins and development of biodiversity offsetting in academic research and its implications for conservation: A review. Biological Conservation, 192, 492–503. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2015.08.036

Corbera, E. (2012). Problematizing REDD+ as an experiment in payments for ecosystem services. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 4(6), 612–619. doi: 10.1016/j.cosust.2012.09.010

Costanza, R. y Daly, H. E. (1992). Natural capital and sustainable development. Conservation Biology, 6(1), 37–46. Recuperado de: https://www.jstor.org/stable/2385849 (22.04.2020).

Costanza, R., d’Arge, R., Groot, R. de, Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B. y Belt, M. (1997). The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature, 387(6630), 253–260. doi: 10.1038/387253a0

Costanza, R., de Groot, R., Braat, L., Kubiszewski, I., Fioramonti, L., Sutton, P. y Grasso, M. (2017). Twenty years of ecosystem services: How far have we come and how far do we still need to go? Ecosystem Services, 28, 1–16. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.09.008

Daily, G. C. (1997). Nature’s services (Vol. 3). Island Press.

Daly, H. E. (2008). Ecological economics and sustainable development: Selected essays. Edward Elgar.

Daly, H. E. y Farley, J. (2011). Ecological economics: Principles and applications. Island Press.

Dow, S. C. (2012). Beyond Dualism. En Dow, S. C. (Ed.). Foundations for New Economic Thinking: A Collection of Essays (pp. 52–71). Palgrave Macmillan.

Driesen, D. M. (2005). Trading and its Limits. Penn State Environmental Law Review, 14(2), 169–176. Recuperado de: https://heinonline.org/HOL/P?h=hein.journals/pensaenlar14&i=193 (09.05.2020).

EC. (23.11.2016). EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). Recuperado de: https://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/ets_en (28.04.2020)

Ekins, P., Simon, S., Deutsch, L., Folke, C. y De Groot, R. (2003). A framework for the practical application of the concepts of critical natural capital and strong sustainability. Ecological Economics, 44(2), 165–185. doi: 10.1016/S0921-8009(02)00272-0

Fearnehough, H., Day, T., Warnecke, C. y Schneider, L. (2018). Discussion paper: Marginal cost of CER supply and implications of demand sources. Berlin: German Emissions Trading Authority (DEHSt). Recuperado de: https://newclimate.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Marginal-cost-of-CER-supply.pdf (28.04.2020).

Foster, J. B. (1999). Marx’s Theory of Metabolic Rift: Classical Foundations for Environmental Sociology. American Journal of Sociology, 105(2), 366–405. doi: 10.1086/210315

Georgescu-Roegen, N. (1971). The entropy law and the economic process. Harvard University Press.

Giddens, A. (1979). Central Problems in Social Theory: Action, Structure, and Contradiction in Social Analysis. University of California Press.

Goddard, J. J., Kallis, G. y Norgaard, R. B. (2019). Keeping multiple antennae up: Coevolutionary foundations for methodological pluralism. Ecological Economics, 165, 106420. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2019.106420

Gómez-Baggethun, E. y Martín-López, B. (2015). Ecological economics perspectives on ecosystem services valuation. En Martinez-Alier, J. y Muradian, R. (Eds.). Handbook of ecological economics (pp. 260–282). Edward Elgar Publishing.

Gowdy, J. y Erickson, J. D. (2005). The approach of ecological economics. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 29(2), 207–222. doi: 10.1093/cje/bei033

Greenway, M. (2017). Stormwater wetlands for the enhancement of environmental ecosystem services: Case studies for two retrofit wetlands in Brisbane, Australia. Journal of Cleaner Production, 163, 91–100. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.12.081

Gunderson, R. (2017). Commodification of Nature. International Encyclopedia of Geography: People, the Earth, Environment and Technology, 1–20. doi: 10.1002/9781118786352.wbieg0332

Hamilton, C. (2002). Dualism and sustainability. Ecological Economics, 42(1), 89–99. doi: 10.1016/S0921-8009(02)00051-4

Han, L. (2010). Marxism and Ecology: Marx’s Theory of Labour Process Revisited. En Huan, Q. (Ed.). Eco-socialism as Politics (pp. 15–31). Springer.

Harrison, P. A., Berry, P. M., Simpson, G., Haslett, J. R., Blicharska, M., Bucur, M. y Turkelboom, F. (2014). Linkages between biodiversity attributes and ecosystem services: A systematic review. Ecosystem Services, 9, 191–203. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2014.05.006

Howitt, P. y Weil, D. N. (2018). Economic growth. En Macmillan Publishers Ltd (Ed.). The new Palgrave dictionary of economics. (pp. 3299–3309). Palgrave Macmillan.

Jackson, W. A. (1999). Dualism, duality and the complexity of economic institutions. International Journal of Social Economics, 26(4), 545–558. doi: 10.1108/03068299910215997

Jacobs, S., Dendoncker, N., Martín-López, B., Barton, D. N., Gomez-Baggethun, E., Boeraeve, F. y Washbourne, C. L. (2016). A new valuation school: Integrating diverse values of nature in resource and land use decisions. Ecosystem Services, 22, 213–220. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.007

Jacobs, S., Dendoncker, N., Martín-López, B., Barton, D. N., Gomez-Baggethun, E., Boeraeve, F. y Washbourne, C. L. (2016). A new valuation school: Integrating diverse values of nature in resource and land use decisions. Ecosystem Services, 22, 213–220. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2016.11.007

Katzner, D. W. (2001). En Defense of Formalization in Economics. In D. W. Katzner (Ed.). Unmeasured Information and the Methodology of Social Scientific Inquiry (pp. 47–60). Springer.

Lade, S. J., Steffen, W., de Vries, W., Carpenter, S. R., Donges, J. F., Gerten, D. y Rockström, J. (2020). Human impacts on planetary boundaries amplified by Earth system interactions. Nature Sustainability, 3(2), 119–128. doi: 10.1038/s41893-019-0454-4

Latimer, W. y Hill, D. (2007). Mitigation banking: Securing no net loss to biodiversity? A UK perspective. Planning, Practice & Research, 22(2), 155–175. doi: doi.org/10.1080/02697450701584337

Levins, R., y Lewontin, R. C. (2009). The dialectical biologist. Aakar Books.

Lo, A. Y. y Spash, C. L. (2013). Deliberative Monetary Valuation: In Search of a Democratic and Value Plural Approach to Environmental Policy. Journal of Economic Surveys, 27(4), 768–789. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6419.2011.00718.x

Lohmann, L. (2012). Financialization, commodification and carbon: The contradictions of neoliberal climate policy. Socialist Register, 48, 85–107. Recuperado de: http://www.thecornerhouse.org.uk/resource/financialization-commodification-and-carbon (09.05.2020).

Lyon, T. P. y Montgomery, A. W. (2015). The Means and End of Greenwash. Organization & Environment, 28(2), 223–249. doi: 10.1177/1086026615575332

Mabee, W. E., Blair, M. J., Carlson, J. T. y DeLoyde, C. N. M. (2020). Sustainability. En Kobayashi, A. (Ed.). International Encyclopedia of Human Geography (Second Edition) (pp. 157–163). Oxford: Elsevier. Recuperado de: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081022955100149 (10.08.2020)

Marx, K. (1887). Capital: A Critique of Political Economy. Volume I (Marxists.org online). Progress Publishers. Recuperado de: https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/download/pdf/Capital-Volume-I.pdf (15.02.2019).

Mies, M. (1998). Patriarchy and Accumulation On A World Scale: Women in the International Division of Labour. Zed Books.

Moore, J. W. (2011). Transcending the metabolic rift: A theory of crises in the capitalist world-ecology. The Journal of Peasant Studies, 38(1), 1–46. doi: 10.1080/03066150.2010.538579

Moore, J. W. (2014). The End of Cheap Nature, or, How I learned to Stop Worrying about “the” Environment and Love the Crisis of Capitalism. En Suter, C. y Chase-Dunn, C. (Eds.). Structures of the world political economy and the future global conflict and cooperation (pp. 285–314). LIT Verlag.

Moore, J. W. (2015a). Capitalism in the web of life: Ecology and the accumulation of capital. Verso.

Moore, J. W. (2015b). Cheap Food and Bad Climate: From Surplus Value to Negative Value in the Capitalist World-Ecology. Critical Historical Studies, 2(1), 1–43. doi: 10.1086/681007

Moore, J. W. (2017). Metabolic rift or metabolic shift? Dialectics, nature, and the world-historical method. Theory and Society, 46(4), 285–318. doi: 10.1007/s11186-017-9290-6

Neumayer, E. (2013). Weak versus Strong Sustainability: Exploring the Limits of Two Opposing Paradigms. Edward Elgar Publishing.

O’Connor, J. (1991). On the two contradictions of capitalism. Capitalism Nature Socialism, 2(3), 107–109. doi: 10.1080/10455759109358463

Pearce, D. (1988). Economics, equity and sustainable development. Futures, 20(6), 598–605. doi: 10.1016/0016-3287(88)90002-X

Perman, R., Ma, Y., McGilvray, J. y Common, M. (2003). Natural resource and environmental economics (Tercera edición). Pearson Education.

Pirard, R. (2012). Market-based instruments for biodiversity and ecosystem services: A lexicon. Environmental Science & Policy, 19–20, 59–68. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2012.02.001

Polanyi, K. (2001). The great transformation the political and economic origins of our time (J. E. Stiglitz & F. Block, Eds.). Beacon Press.

Robertson, M. y Hayden, N. (2008). Evaluation of a Market in Wetland Credits: Entrepreneurial Wetland Banking in Chicago. Conservation Biology, 22(3), 636–646. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.00963.x

Rockström, J., Steffen, W., Noone, K., Persson, Å., Chapin, F. S., Lambin, E. F. y Foley, J. A. (2009a). A safe operating space for humanity. Nature, 461(7263), 472–475. doi: 10.1038/461472a

Rockström, J., Steffen, W., Noone, K., Persson, Å., Chapin, F. S., Lambin, E. F. y Foley, J. A. (2009b). Planetary Boundaries: Exploring the Safe Operating Space for Humanity. Ecology and Society, 14(2). doi: 10.5751/ES-03180-140232

Salleh, A. (2010). From Metabolic Rift to “Metabolic Value”: Reflections on Environmental Sociology and the Alternative Globalization Movement. Organization & Environment, 23(2), 205–219. doi: 10.1177/1086026610372134

Salzman, J., Bennett, G., Carroll, N., Goldstein, A. y Jenkins, M. (2018). The global status and trends of Payments for Ecosystem Services. Nature Sustainability, 1(3), 136–144. doi: 10.1038/s41893-018-0033-0

Schmidt, A. (2014). The concept of nature in Marx. Londres; Verso.

Spash, C. L. (1993). Economics, ethics, and long-term environmental damages. Environmental Ethics, 15(2), 117–132. doi: 10.5840/enviroethics199315227

Spash, C. L. (2008). How much is that ecosystem in the window? The one with the bio-diverse trail. Environmental Values, 17(2), 259–284. doi: 10.3197/096327108X303882

Spash, C. L. (2020). A tale of three paradigms: Realising the revolutionary potential of ecological economics. Ecological Economics, 169, 106518. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2019.106518

Sullivan, S. (2018a). Bonding nature (s)? En Bracking, S., Fredriksen, A., Sullivan, S. y Woodhouse, P. (Eds.), Valuing development, environment and conservation: Creating values that matter (pp. 101-121). Routledge.

Sullivan, S. (2018b). Making nature investable: From legibility to leverageability in fabricating’nature’as’ natural capital’. Science and Technology Studies, 31(3), 47–76. doi: 10.23987/sts.58040

Turner, R. K. (1993). Sustainable environmental economics and management: Principles and practice. Belhaven Press.

UNFCCC. (2013). Afforestation and Reforestation Projects under the Clean Development Mechanism: A Reference Manual. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Recuperado de: https://unfccc.int/resource/docs/publications/cdm_afforestation_bro_web.pdf (28.04.2020).

UNFCCC. (2020a, March). The Clean Development Mechanism. UNFCCC. Recuperado de: https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/the-kyoto-protocol/mechanisms-under-the-kyoto-protocol/the-clean-development-mechanism (28.04.2020).

UNFCCC. (2020b, April). Kyoto Protocol—Html version | UNFCCC. Recuperado de: https://unfccc.int/kyoto-protocol-html-version (28.04.2020).

Venkatachalam, L. (2007). Environmental economics and ecological economics: Where they can converge? Ecological Economics, 61(2), 550–558. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2006.05.012

Victor, P. A. (2020). Cents and nonsense: A critical appraisal of the monetary valuation of nature. Ecosystem Services, 42, 101076. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoser.2020.101076

Walker, R. y Moore, J. W. (2019). Nature, Value, and the Vortex of Accumulation. En Ernstson, H. y Erik, S. (Eds.), Urban political ecology in the anthropo-obscene: Interruptions and possibilities (pp. 48–68). Routledge.

World Bank. (2019). Green Bond Impact Report 2019. World Bank - Investors Relations. Recuperado de: http://pubdocs.worldbank.org/en/790081576615720375/IBRD-Green-Bond-Impact-Report-FY-2019.pdf (28.04.2020)

World Resources Institute. (2005). Ecosystems and human well-being: Biodiversity synthesis: a report of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Washington: World Resources Institute. Recuperado de: http://pubdocs.worldbank.org/en/790081576615720375/IBRD-Green-Bond-Impact-Report-FY-2019.pdf (28.04.2020).

Yu, J. y Mallory, M. L. (2020). Carbon price interaction between allocated permits and generated offsets. Operational Research, 20(2), 671–700. doi: 10.1007/s12351-017-0345-2