El nexo entre la delincuencia organizada y la violencia en la República Democrática del Congo | The organized crime – violence nexus in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Víctor LÓPEZ

Resumen


El artículo analiza de manera crítica el nexo entre la delincuencia organizada y la violencia en la República Democrática del Congo (RDC) a través de las teorías sobre la violencia, los estados fallidos y la delincuencia organizada. Se empieza por describir cómo los grupos armados se financian a través del tráfico de recursos naturales. Se continúa analizando el sistema de “cleptocracia violenta” establecido por la élite en el poder para depredar los recursos del país, a costa de la población. Se examinan asimismo dos ejemplos de corrupción empresarial. A continuación, se exploran algunas pistas de solución a niveles internacional, regional y local. El articulo confirma la existencia del nexo entre la delincuencia organizada y la violencia en la RDC, víctima de una “nueva guerra” que no se pretende ganar sino prolongar, motivada más por codicia que por agravios, en la que compiten actores estatales y no estatales, y cuyas víctimas son principalmente los civiles. Las élites extraen rentas con la complicidad de empresas multinacionales y paraísos fiscales, alimentando un círculo vicioso de subdesarrollo desde la creación del estado congoleño hace más de 130 años. Esta situación sigue frustrando los esfuerzos de construcción de la paz por parte de la comunidad internacional.

 

The article analyses the organized crime - violence nexus in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) from a critical perspective through theories of violence, failed states and organized crime. It starts by describing how the armed groups are financed through the trafficking of natural resources. Then it analyses the system of “violent kleptocracy” established by the ruling elite to prey on the resources of the country at the expense of the population. It continues by examining two examples of corporate crime. The article considers some attempts of solution at the international, regional and local levels. The article ascertains the existence of the organized crime – violence nexus in the DRC, victim of a “new war” which is not intended to be won but extended, is motivated by greed rather than grievance, in which state and non-state actors compete, and which victims are mainly civilian. The elites extract rents from the country with the complicity of corporations and offshore jurisdictions, feeding a vicious circle of underdevelopment since the inception of the country 130 years ago. This situation continues to frustrate the efforts of the international community to build peace.


Palabras clave


Delincuencia organizada; estado fallido; nuevas guerras; cleptocracia; codicia o agravio;organized crime; failed state; new wars; kleptocracy; greed or grievance

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15366/relacionesinternacionales2018.38.008

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