Núm. 59 (2015)

Variación en la densidad mineral ósea inducida por ejercicio en mujeres posmenopáusicas / Variation of Bone Mineral Density Induced by Exercise in Postmenopausal Women pp. 527-541

Publicado octubre 1, 2015
Cómo citar
Molina, E., Ducaud, P., Bustamante, I., León-Prados, J., Otero-Saborido, F., & Gonzalez-Jurado, J. (2015). Variación en la densidad mineral ósea inducida por ejercicio en mujeres posmenopáusicas / Variation of Bone Mineral Density Induced by Exercise in Postmenopausal Women pp. 527-541. Revista Internacional De Medicina Y Ciencias De La Actividad Física Y Del Deporte, (59). https://doi.org/10.15366/rimcafd2015.59.008


OBJETIVO: Evaluar la variación de la densidad mineral ósea (DMO) en columna lumbar (CL) y cuello femoral (CF).MÉTODO: 77 mujeres con osteopenia y menopausia, formaron cuatro grupos. Dos con ejercicio físico: uno tratamiento de estrógeno/Calcitonina  (n=16), y otro ingesta de Calcio/Vitamina D (n=7). Dos sin ejercicio físico, uno tratamiento estrógeno/Calcitonina (n=27) y otro ingesta Calcio/Vitamina D (n=27). El ejercicio consistió en Fuerza Muscular (65% a 75% de 1RM) y multisaltos de baja a moderada intensidad. La DMO se midió mediante absorciometría. RESULTADOS: En ANOVA 2x2 se encontró homogeneidad (p<0,05) en la DMO tanto en CL y CF entre los tratamientos farmacológicos y nutricionales, heterogeneidad entre los grupos activos y sedentarios (CL p<0,05, CF p<0,01) y heterogeneidad en la interacción (p<0,01) de ambos  tratamientos con el ejercicio físico. CONCLUSIONES: El ejercicio físico programado junto con los tratamientos habituales conduce a un mayor incremento de la DMO de en mujeres postmenopáusicas.


PALABRAS CLAVE: posmenopausia, osteopenia, densidad mineral ósea, ejercicio físico, columna lumbar, cuello femoral.



OBJECTIVE: Assess the variation of Bone Mineral Density (BMD) in Lumbar Spine (LS) and Femoral Neck (FN). METHOD: 77 postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Four groups, two groups with exercise: one Estrogen/Calcitonin treatment (n=16), another supplement Calcium/Vitamin D (n=7); two groups without exercise, one Estrogen/Calcitonin treatment (n=27), and another supplement Calcium/Vitamin D (n=27). The exercise program consisted of resistance training (65% to 75% 1RM) and multi-jumps of low-to-moderate intensity. The BMD was evaluated by absorptiometry. RESULTS. ANOVA 2x2, homogeneity (p<0,05) in the BMD in both LS and FN between the pharmacological and nutritional treatments, and heterogeneity between the active and sedentary groups (LS p <0,05, FN p<0,01) as also in the interaction (p<0,01) of the pharmacological/nutritional treatments with the physical exercise were found. CONCLUSION. Physical exercise program with the usual treatments, lead to a greater increase in the BMD of LS and FN in postmenopausal women.


KEY WORDS: postmenopause, osteopenia, mineral bone density, physical exercise, lumbar spine, femoral neck.


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.


NAMS. Management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: 2010 position statement of the north American menopause society. Menopause. 2010;17(1):25-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/gme.0b013e3181c617e6

Benton MJ, White A. Osteoporosis: Recommendations for resistance exercise and supplementation with calcium and vitamin D to promote bone health. J Community Health Nurs. 2006;23(4):201-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327655jchn2304_1

Barro-Belaygues N. Prevention of nonvertebral fractures with oral vitamin D and dose dependency a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Cah Annee Gerontol. 2010;2(3):209-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12612-010-0061-5

Gallagher JC, Levine JP. Preventing osteoporosis in symptomatic postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2011;18(1):109-18.http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/gme.0b013e3181e324a6

Aloia JF, Cohn SH, Ostuni JA. Prevention of involutional bone loss by exercise. Ann Intern Med. 1978;89(3):356-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-89-3-356

Aubertin-Leheudre M, Lord C, Labonte M, Khalil A, Dionne IJ. Relationship between sarcopenia and fracture risks in obese postmenopausal women. J Women Aging. 2008;20(3-4):297-308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08952840801984964

Sinaki M. Nonpharmacologic interventions exercise, fall prevention, and role of physical medicine. Clin Geriatr Med. 2003;19(2):337-59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0749-0690(02)00111-8

Chilibeck PD, Cornish SM. Effect of estrogenic compounds (estrogen or phytoestrogens) combined with exercise on bone and muscle mass in older individuals. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism. 2008;33(1):200-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/H07-140

Dionyssiotis Y, Paspati I, Trovas G, Galanos A, Lyritis GP. Association of physical exercise and calcium intake with bone mass measured by quantitative ultrasound. BMC Womens Health. 2010;10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6874-10-12

Sinaki M. Musculoskeletal challenges of osteoporosis: Therapeutic exercise/strength training a review. Osteoporoz Dunyasindan. 2009;15(2):52-8.

Tolomio S, Ermolao A, Lalli A, Zaccaria M. The effect of a multicomponent dual-modality exercise program targeting osteoporosis on bone health status and physical function capacity of postmenopausal women. J Women Aging. 2010;22(4):241-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08952841.2010.518866

De Matos O, Da Silva DJL, De Oliveira JM, Castelo-Branco C. Effect of specific exercise training on bone mineral density in women with postmenopausal osteopenia or osteoporosis. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2009;25(9):616-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09513590903015593

Eng JJ, Pang MYC, Ashe MC. Balance, falls, and bone health: Role of exercise in reducing fracture risk after stroke. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2008;45(2):297-314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1682/JRRD.2007.01.0014

Kelley GA, Kelley KS. Efficacy of resistance exercise on lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density in premenopausal women: A meta-analysis of individual patient data. J Women's Health. 2004;13(3):293-300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/154099904323016455

Marks R, Guertin D. Postmenopausal osteoporosis and aerobic exercise: A review of the literature. Curr Rheumatol Rev. 2006;2(3):289-301. http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/157339706778019638

Turner CH, Robling AG. Designing exercise regimens to increase bone strength. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2003;31(1):45-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00003677-200301000-00009

Villareal DT, Binder EF, Yarasheski KE, Williams DB, Brown M, Sinacore DR, et al. Effects of exercise training added to ongoing hormone replacement therapy on bone mineral density in frail elderly women. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003;51(7):985-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2389.2003.51312.x

Kanis JA, Alexeeva L, Bonjour JP, Burkhardt P, Christiansen C, Cooper C, et al. Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis: Synopsis of a WHO report. Osteoporos Int. 1994;4(6):368-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01622200

Spangler M, Phillips BB, Ross MB, Moores KG. Calcium supplementation in postmenopausal women to reduce the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2011;68(4):309-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.2146/ajhp070175

Tang BM, Eslick GD, Nowson C, Smith C, Bensoussan A. Use of calcium or calcium in combination with vitamin D supplementation to prevent fractures and bone loss in people aged 50 years and older: a meta-analysis. Lancet. 2007;370(9588):657-66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61342-7

Taranta A, Brama M, Teti A, De luca V, Scandurra R, Spera G, et al. The selective estrogen receptor modulator raloxifene regulates osteoclast and osteoblast activity in vitro. Bone. 2002;30(2):368-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S8756-3282(01)00685-8

Kemmler W, Engelke K, Weineck J, Hensen J, Kalender WA. The Erlangen fitness osteoporosis prevention study: A controlled exercise trial in early postmenopausal women with low bone density - First-year results. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003;84(5):673-82.

Jackson RD, LaCroix AZ, Gass M, Wallace RB, Robbins J, Lewis CE, et al. Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(7):669-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa055218

MacLean C, Newberry S, Maglione M, McMahon M, Ranganath V, Suttorp M, et al. Systematic review: Comparative effectiveness of treatments to prevent fractures in men and women with low bone density or osteoporosis. Ann Intern Med. 2008;148(3):197-213. http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-148-3-200802050-00198

Reid IR, Mason B, Horne A, Ames R, Reid HE, Bava U, et al. Randomized Controlled Trial of Calcium in Healthy Older Women. Am J Med. 2006;119(9):777-85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2006.02.038

Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Willett WC, Wong JB, Giovannucci E, Dietrich T, Dawson-Hughes B. Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2005;293(18):2257-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.293.18.2257

Papapoulos SE, Quandt SA, Liberman UA, Hochberg MC, Thompson DE. Meta-analysis of the efficacy of alendronate for the prevention of hip fractures in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2005;16(5):468-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00198-004-1725-z

Richy F, Ethgen O, Bruyere O, Reginster JY. Efficacy of alphacalcidol and calcitriol in primary and corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis: A meta-analysis of their effects on bone mineral density and fracture rate. Osteoporos Int. 2004;15(4):301-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00198-003-1570-5

Richy F, Schacht E, Bruyere O, Ethgen O, Gourlay M, Reginster JY. Vitamin D analogs versus native vitamin D in preventing bone loss and osteoporosis-related fractures: A comparative meta-analysis. Calcif Tissue Int. 2005;76(3):176-86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00223-004-0005-4

Avenell A, Gillespie WJ, Gillespie LD, O'Connell D. Vitamin D and vitamin D analogues for preventing fractures associated with involutional and post-menopausal osteoporosis. Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online). 2009(2).

Stevenson M, Jones ML, De Nigris E, Brewer N, Davis S, Oakley J. A systematic review and economic evaluation of alendronate, etidronate, risedronate, raloxifene and teriparatide for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Health Technol Assess. 2005;9(22):i-310. http://dx.doi.org/10.3310/hta9220

Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, LaCroix AZ, Kooperberg C, Stefanick ML, et al. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: Principal results from the women's health initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002;288(3):321-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.288.3.321

Campusano MC, López JM, Campino JC, Cárdenas GI, Rojas OA. Effects of low calcitonin doses on bone remodeling in postmenopausal women with high bone turnover rate. Rev Med Chil. 2000;128(4):387-91.

Beck BR, Snow CM. Bone health across the lifespan - Exercising our options. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2003;31(3):117-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00003677-200307000-00003

Orwoll ES, Ferar J, Oviatt SK, McClung MR, Huntington K. The relationship of swimming exercise to bone mass in men and women. Arch Intern Med. 1989;149(10):2197-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.1989.00390100035009

Taaffe DR, Snow-Harter C, Connolly DA, Robinson TL, Brown MD, Marcus R. Differential effects of swimming versus weight-bearing activity on bone mineral status of eumenorrheic athletes. J Bone Miner Res. 1995;10(4):586-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.5650100411

Hsieh YF, Turner CH. Effects of loading frequency on mechanically induced bone formation. J Bone Miner Res. 2001;16(5):918-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.2001.16.5.918

Srinivasan S, Weimer DA, Agans SC, Bain SD, Gross TS. Low-magnitude mechanical loading becomes osteogenic when rest is inserted between each load cycle. J Bone Miner Res. 2002;17(9):1613-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.2002.17.9.1613

Rubin CT, Lanyon LE. Regulation of bone formation by applied dynamic loads. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - Series A. 1984;66(3):397-402.

Andreoli A, Monteleone M, Van Loan M, Promenzio L, Tarantino U, De Lorenzo A. Effects of different sports on bone density and muscle mass in highly trained athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33(4):507-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200104000-00001

Layne JE, Nelson ME. The effects of progressive resistance training on bone density: A review. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31(1):25-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199901000-00006