Variación en la densidad mineral ósea inducida por ejercicio en mujeres posmenopáusicas / Variation of Bone Mineral Density Induced by Exercise in Postmenopausal Women pp. 527-541

E. Molina, P. Ducaud, I. Bustamante, J.A. León-Prados, F.M. Otero-Saborido, J.A. Gonzalez-Jurado

Resumen


OBJETIVO: Evaluar la variación de la densidad mineral ósea (DMO) en columna lumbar (CL) y cuello femoral (CF).MÉTODO: 77 mujeres con osteopenia y menopausia, formaron cuatro grupos. Dos con ejercicio físico: uno tratamiento de estrógeno/Calcitonina  (n=16), y otro ingesta de Calcio/Vitamina D (n=7). Dos sin ejercicio físico, uno tratamiento estrógeno/Calcitonina (n=27) y otro ingesta Calcio/Vitamina D (n=27). El ejercicio consistió en Fuerza Muscular (65% a 75% de 1RM) y multisaltos de baja a moderada intensidad. La DMO se midió mediante absorciometría. RESULTADOS: En ANOVA 2x2 se encontró homogeneidad (p<0,05) en la DMO tanto en CL y CF entre los tratamientos farmacológicos y nutricionales, heterogeneidad entre los grupos activos y sedentarios (CL p<0,05, CF p<0,01) y heterogeneidad en la interacción (p<0,01) de ambos  tratamientos con el ejercicio físico. CONCLUSIONES: El ejercicio físico programado junto con los tratamientos habituales conduce a un mayor incremento de la DMO de en mujeres postmenopáusicas.

 

PALABRAS CLAVE: posmenopausia, osteopenia, densidad mineral ósea, ejercicio físico, columna lumbar, cuello femoral.

 

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Assess the variation of Bone Mineral Density (BMD) in Lumbar Spine (LS) and Femoral Neck (FN). METHOD: 77 postmenopausal women with osteopenia. Four groups, two groups with exercise: one Estrogen/Calcitonin treatment (n=16), another supplement Calcium/Vitamin D (n=7); two groups without exercise, one Estrogen/Calcitonin treatment (n=27), and another supplement Calcium/Vitamin D (n=27). The exercise program consisted of resistance training (65% to 75% 1RM) and multi-jumps of low-to-moderate intensity. The BMD was evaluated by absorptiometry. RESULTS. ANOVA 2x2, homogeneity (p<0,05) in the BMD in both LS and FN between the pharmacological and nutritional treatments, and heterogeneity between the active and sedentary groups (LS p <0,05, FN p<0,01) as also in the interaction (p<0,01) of the pharmacological/nutritional treatments with the physical exercise were found. CONCLUSION. Physical exercise program with the usual treatments, lead to a greater increase in the BMD of LS and FN in postmenopausal women.

 

KEY WORDS: postmenopause, osteopenia, mineral bone density, physical exercise, lumbar spine, femoral neck.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15366/rimcafd2015.59.008

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