Núm. 58 (2015)
Área 15. PSICOLOGÍA DEL DEPORTE / SPORT PSYCHOLOGY

Comportamiento visual de árbitros de futbol en situaciones de fuera de juego / Referees' Visual Behaviour During Offside Situations In Football. pp. 325-338

Publicado octubre 1, 2015

Resumen

El estudio analiza el comportamiento visual de 8 árbitros de fútbol durante la percepción del fuera de juego en laboratorio. La tarea consiste en percibir una secuencia de 24 ensayos en una pantalla (5x3m), donde se proyectan situaciones reducidas de juego y que concluyen con una posible acción de fuera de juego. Los participantes deben percibir la secuencia con el ASL Eye Tracking SE5000, y pulsar un puntero laser hacia la pantalla en aquellos ensayos con fuera de juego. Las variables a manipular son la distancia y el ángulo con que se perciben las acciones de fuera de juego. Las variables dependientes son el número y tiempo (media) de fijaciones visuales y el porcentaje de acierto. Los resultados muestran que la distancia y ángulo influyen en el comportamiento visual de los árbitros. Además, son más eficaces detectando el fuera de juego con ángulos pequeños y en distancias cercanas y medias. 

PALABRAS CLAVE: Comportamiento visual, árbitros, fuera juego, aciertos, fútbol.

 

ABSTRACT

The study examines the 8 football referees´ visual behavior during the perception of offside actions carried out in a laboratory setting. The task consists on perceiving a rally of 24 trials onto a large screen (5x3m) with reduced play situations and that could conclude with an offside action. Participants perceive the sequence with the ASL Eye Tracking SE5000 and press a laser pointer toward the screen in those trials with offside action. Variables to manipulate are the distance and angle in which the offside trials are perceived. The dependent variables are the number and time (average) of visual fixations and the success rate. The results show that the distance and angle changes the referees´ visual behavior. Moreover, they have higher success rate when they perceive trials with small angles, concretely with short and medium distances. 

KEY WORDS: Visual behavior, referees, offside, success rate, football.

Citas

Al-Abood, S. A., Bennett, S. J., Moreno, F., Ashford, D., & Davids, K. (2002). Effect of verbal instructions and image size on visual search strategies in basketball free throw shooting. Journal of Sports Sciences, 20, 271-278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/026404102317284817

Armenteros, M. (2006). Aprendizaje de las Reglas del Fútbol a través del Videojuego. Icono 14: Revista de Comunicación y Nuevas Tecnologías, 8, 1-13.

Ávila, F., & Moreno, F.J. (2003). Visual search strategies elaborated by tennis coaches during execution error detection process. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 44, 209-224.

Baldo, M.V.C., Ranvaud, R.D., & Morya, E. (2002). Flag Errors in Soccer Games: The Flash-lag Effect Brought to Real Life. Perception, 31, 1205-1210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/p3422

Belda, F. (2004). Can the Human Eye detect an Offside Position During a Football Match? British Medical Journal, 329, 1470-1472. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.329.7480.1470

Belda, F. (2009). An offside position in football cannot be detected in zero milliseconds. Nature Precedings. hdl:10101/npre.2009.3835.1.

Bennet, A.G., & Rabbetts, R.G. (1992). Clinical Visual Optics. Oxford: Butterworths.

Botella, J. & Palacios, A. (2002). Limitaciones cognitivas en la apreciación del fuera de juego en fútbol. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 11 (2), 227-246.

Button, C. (2006). Developing a method to examine decision-making and physical demands of football refereeing. SPARC & NZ Soccer, 2-28.

Catteeuw, P., Gilis, B., García-Aranda, J., Tresaco, F., Wagemans, J., & Helsen, W. (2010). Offside decision making in the 2002 and 2006 FIFA World Cups. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(10),1027-1032. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2010.491084

Catteeuw, P., Gilis, B., Wagemans, J., & Helsen, W. (2010a). Offside decision making of assistant referees in the English Premier League: Impact of physical and perceptual-cognitive factors on match performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(5), 471- 481. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640410903518184

Catteeuw, P., Helsen, W., Gilis, B., Van Roie, E., & Wagemans, J. (2009). Visual scan patterns and decision-making skills of expert assistant referees in offside situations. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 31, 786-797.

Catteeuw, P., Helsen, W., Gilis, B., & Wagemans, J. (2009a). Decision-making skills, role specificity, and deliberate practice in association football refereeing. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(11), 1125 -1136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640410903079179

Catteeuw, P., Helsen, W., Gilis, B., & Wagemans, J. (2009b, October). Expert perception and performance in offside decision making. 13th Congrès Internationale de l'ACAPS. Lyon: France.

Chaveleraud, J.P. (1986). Ojo y deporte. Barcelona: Masson.

Gilis, B., Helsen, W., Catteeuw, P., Van Roie, E., & Wagemans, J. (2009). Interpretation and application of the offside law by expert assistant referees: Perception of spatial positions in complex dynamic events on and off the field. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(6), 551-563. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640410802702178

Gilis, B., Helsen, W., Catteeuw, P., & Wagemans, J. (2008). Offside decisions by expert assistant referees in association football: Perception and recall of spatial positions in complex dynamic events. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 14(1), 21-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-898x.14.1.21

Gómez, M. & Botella, J. (2005). El papel del feedback y la experiencia en la apreciación del fuera de juego en fútbol. Revista de psicología del deporte, 14(1), 57-73.

Helsen, W., Gilis, B., & Weston, M. (2006). Errors in judging "offside" in association football: Test of the optical error versus the perceptual flash-lag hypothesis. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24(5), 521-528. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640410500298065

Kato, T. & Fukuda, T. (2002). Visual search strategies of baseball batters: Eye movements during the preparatory phase of batting. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 94, 380-386. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pms.2002.94.2.380

Oudejans, R.R.D., Verheijen, R., Bakker, EC., Gerrits, J.C., Steinbruckner, M., & Beek, P.J. (2000). Errors in judging 'offside' in football. Nature, 404, 33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35003639

Oudejans, R.R.D., Verheijen, R., Bakker, F.C., Gerrits, C., Steinbruckner, M., & Beek, P.J. (2005). How position and motion of expert assistant referees in soccer relate to the quality or their offside judgments during actual match play. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 36(1), 3-21.

Pereda, S. (1987). Psicología experimental I. Metodología. Madrid: Piramide.

Reina, R., Luis, V., Sanz, D., y Moreno, F. J. (2004). Influencia del tama-o de la imagen sobre las estrategias de búsqueda visual en situación simulada del resto en tenis. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 13(2), 175-193.

Sanabria, J., Cenjor, C., Márquez, F., Gutiérrez, R., Martínez, D., & Prados-García, J.L. (1998). Oculomotor movements and football's law 11. Lancet, 351, 268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)78269-6

Williams, A.M. & Davids, K. (1998). Visual search strategy, selective attention and expertise in soccer. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 69 (2), 111-129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1998.10607677

Williams, A.M., Davids, K., Burwitz, L., & Williams, J.G. (1994). Visual search strategies in experienced and inexperienced soccer players. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 65(2), 127-135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1994.10607607

Williams, A.M., Davids, K., & Williams, J.G. (1999).Visual perception and action in sport. London: E y FN Spon.