Actividad física y salud autopercibida en personas mayores de 50 años / Physical Activity and Self-Perceived Health among People Aged 50 and Over

F. Lera-López, Mirian A. Garrues Irisarri, A. Ollo-López, E. Sánchez Iriso, J.M. Cabasés Hita, J.M. Sánchez Santos

Resumen


El propósito del estudio es analizar los posibles efectos de la actividad física sobre la salud autopercibida. Para ello, se encuestó a 765 personas entre 50-70 años durante 2012 en España. Se utilizó el cuestionario internacional de actividad física (IPAQ) para estimar el equivalente metabólico de la tarea (MET) total y en cuatro ámbitos: trabajo, ocio, hogar y desplazamientos. La salud auto-percibida se obtuvo de la escala visual analógica del EQ-5D-5L.

Los resultados muestran que únicamente el gasto energético de actividad física en el tiempo de ocio incide positivamente en el nivel de salud percibido, el resto de ámbitos no tienen influencia significativa. Asimismo, la autopercepción de la salud es más negativa con mayor edad, menor nivel educativo y mayor frecuencia de uso de servicios sanitarios. En conclusión, la actividad física desarrollada en el tiempo libre podría plantearse como alternativa para mejorar la calidad de vida de los mayores.

PALABRAS CLAVEactividad física, salud autopercibida, MET, uso de servicios sanitarios.

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study was to analyse possible related effects between exercise and self-perceived health among people over 50 years old.

A survey was conducted in 2012 to 765 community-living subjects from Spain aged between 50 and 70 years. The survey includes the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) to estimate total physical activity/week in METS (Measure Activity in Metabolic Equivalents) and in four different domains: work, leisure, transport and domestic/gardening. Self-perceived health was measured using the Visual Analogic Scale of the EQ-5D-5L.

The results of the study show that only the level of physical activity developed in leisure time has a positive and statistically significant effect on self-perceived health, whilst the other domains of physical activity are non-significant. Additionally, age, lower educational level and a higher use of health-care services are negatively associated with self-perceived health. To sum up, leisure time physical activity could be an alternative to increase the quality of life of older people.

KEYWORDS: physical activity, self-perceived health, MET, health-care services use.

 


Texto completo:

ESP ENG

Referencias


Abell, J., Hootman, J., Zack, M., Moriarty, D., & Helmick, C. (2005). Physical activity and health related quality of life among people with arthritis. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 59(5): 380–385. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2004.028068

Abu-Omar, K., & Rütten, A. (2008). Relation of leisure time, occupational, domestic, and commuting physical activity to health indicators in Europe. Preventive Medicine,47(3),319-323. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.03.012

Abu-Omar, K., Rütten, A. & Robine, J. (2004). Self-rated health and physical activity in the European Unions. Soz Praventivmed, 49(4), 235-242. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-004-3107-x

Arem, H., Moore, S.C., Patel, A., Hartge, P., de Gonzalez, A.B., Visvanathan, K. et al. (2015). Leisure Time Physical Activity and Mortality: A Detailed Pooled Analysis of the Dose-Response Relationship. JAMA Internal Medicine, 175(6), 959-967. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.0533

Bauman, A., Bull, F., Chey, T., & Craig, C.L., Ainsworth, B.E., & Sallis, JF, et al. (2009). The International Prevalence Study on Physical Activity: results from 20 countries. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 6, 21. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-6-21

Beyer, A., Wolff, J., Warner, L., Schüz, B., Wurm, S. (2015). The role of physical activity in the relationship between self-perceptions of ageing and self-rate health in older adults. Psychology & Health, 30(6), 671-685. https://doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2015.1014370

Blacklock, R.E., Rhodes, R.E., & Brown, SG. (2007). Relationship between regular walking, physical activity and health related quality of life. Journal of Physical Activity Health, 4(2), 138-152. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.4.2.138

Craig, C., Marshall, A., Sjöström, M., Bauman, A., Booth, M.L., Ainsworth, B.E., Pratt, M., Ekelund, U., Yngve, A., & Sallis, J.F. (2003). International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 195(9131/03), 3508-1381. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000078924.61453.FB

Campos, A.C.V., Ferreira, E.F., Vargas, A.M.D., Albala, C. (2014) Aging, Gender and Quality of Life (AGEQOL) study: factors associated with good quality of life in older Brazilian community-dwelling adults. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 12(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12955-014-0166-4

Casado-Pérez, C., Hernández-Barrera, V., Jiménez-García, R., Fernández-de-las-Peñas, C., Carrasco-Garrido, P., López-de-Andrés, A., et al. (2015). Time trends in leisure time physical activity and physical fitness in the elderly: Five-year follow-up of the Spanish National Health Survey (2006–2011). Maturitas, 80(4), 391-398. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2014.12.014

Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas, CIS (2014). Barómetro de Junio 2014. Estudio 3029. Obtenido 12 enero 2015 desde htpp://www.cis.es.

Cimarras-Otal, C., Calderón-Larrañaga, A., Poblador-Plou, B., González-Rubio, F., Gimeno-Feliu, LA., Arjol-Serrano, JL., et al. (2014). Association between physical activity, multimorbidity, self-rated health and functional limitation in the Spanish population. BMC Public Health, 14(1), 1170. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-1170

Comisión Europea (2010). Sport and physical activity. Special Eurobarometer 224/Wave 72.3. TNS Opinion & Social. EU. Bruselas.

EuroQoL Group (1990). EuroQoL – a new facility for the measurement of health-related quality of life. Health Policy 16(3), 199-208. www.euroqol.org. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-8510(90)90421-9

Garatachea, N., Molinero, O., Martínez-García, R., Jiménez-Jiménez, R., González-Gallego, J., & Márquez, S. (2009). Feelings of well being in elderly people: Relationship to physical activity and physical function. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 48(3), 306-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2008.02.010

Gebel, K., Ding, D., Chey, T., Stamatakis, E., Brown, W.J., & Bauman AE. (2015). Effect of Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity on All-Cause Mortality in Middle-aged and Older Australians. JAMA Internal Medicine, 175(6), 970-977. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.0541

Godfrey, A., Lord, S., Galna, B., Mathers, JC., Burn, DJ., Rochester, L. (2014). The association between retirement and age on physical activity in older adults. Age and Ageing, 43(3), 386-93. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/aft168

Green, W.H. (2012). Econometric analysis, 7th edition. England, Pearson.

Hurtig-Wennlöf, A., Hagströmer, M., & Olsson, L.A. (2010). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire modified for the elderly: aspects of validity and feasibility. Public Health Nutrition,13(11),1847. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980010000157

Instituto Nacional de Estadística, INE (2014). Proyección de la población de España 2014-2064. Notas de Prensa, 28 de octubre de 2014. Obtenido 20 enero 2015 desde http://www.ine.es.

Karlsdotter, K., Martin Martin, J., & Puerto López, M. (2012). Multilevel analysis of income, income inequalities and health in Spain. Social Science & Medicine, 74, 1099-1106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.12.020

Lee, I.M., Shiroma, E.J., Lobelo, F., Puska, P., Blair, S.N., & Katzmarzyk, P.T. (2012). Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. Lancet, 21:380(9838), 219-229. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61031-9

León-Prados, J.A., Fuentes,L., González-Jurado, J.A., Fernández,A., Costa, E., & Ramos, A.M. (2011). Actividad física y salud percibida en un sector de la población sevillana: estudio piloto. Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte, 10(41), 164-180.

Novales, A. (2000). Econometría, 2a edición. Madrid, McGraw-Hill.

Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico, OCDE (2015). Health Statistics 2015. Obtenido 18 agosto 2015 desde http://www.oecd.org/els/health-systems/health-data.htm

Olsen, K., & Dahl, S. (2007). Health differences between European countries. Social Science & Medicine, 64, 1665-1678. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.11.031

Organización Mundial de la Salud, OMS (2010). Global recommendations on physical activity for health. Geneva: WHO. Obtenido 15 octubre 2014 desde http://who.int/dietphysicalactivity/pa/en/index.html

Pino, L., González-Vélez, A., Prieto-Flores, M.E., Ayala, A., Fernandez-Mayoralas, G., Rojo-Perez, F.,Martinez-Martin, P., & Forjaz, MJ. (2014). Self-perceived health and quality of life by activity status in community-dwelling older adults, Geriatrics Gerentology International, 14, 464-473. https://doi.org/10.1111/ggi.12119

Rabin, R., & de Charro F. (2001). EQ-5D: a measure of health status from the EuroQol Group. Annals of Medicine, 33, 337–343. https://doi.org/10.3109/07853890109002087

Román Viñas, B., Ribas Barba, L., Ngo, J., & Serra Majem, L. (2013). Validación en población catalana del cuestionario internacional de actividad física. Gaceta Sanitaria, 27, 254-257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaceta.2012.05.013

Román-Viñas, B., Serra-Majem, L., Hagströmer, M., Ribas-Barba, L., Sjöström, M., & Segura-Cardona, R. (2010). International Physical Activity Questionnaire: reliability and validity in a Spanish population. European Journal of Sport Science, 10(5):297-304. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461390903426667

Romero, S., Carrasco, L., Sañudo, B. & Chacón, F. (2010). Actividad física y percepción del estado de salud en adultos sevillanos, Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte, 10(39), 380-392.

Rosenkranz, R.R., Duncan, M.J., Rosenkranz, S.K., Kolt, G.S. (2013). Active lifestyles related to excellent self-rated health and quality of life: cross sectional findings from 194,545 participants in The 45 and Up Study. BMC Public Health, 13(1), 1071. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-1071

Salinas Martínez, F.S., Cocca, A., Mohamed, K., & Ramírez, J.V. (2010). Actividad física y sedentarismo: repercusiones sobre la salud y calidad de vida de las personas mayores. Retos, 17, 126-129.

Sari, N. (2010). A short walk a day shortens the hospital stay: Physical activity and the demand for hospital services for older adults. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 101(5), 385-389. http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/cjph.101.1962

Serrano-Sanchez, J.A., Lera-Navarro, A., & Espino-Torón,L. (2013). Actividad física y diferencias de fitness funcional y calidad de vida en hombres mayores, Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de las Actividad Física y el Deporte, 13(48), 87-105.

Stein, AC., Molinero, O., Salguero, A., Corrêa, MCR., & Márquez, S. (2005) Actividad física y salud percibida en pacientes con enfermedad coronaria. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, 14(1), 109-116. https://doi.org/10.4321/S1578-84232014000100013

Yang, G., Niu, K., Fujita, K., Hozawa, A., Ohmori-Matsuda, K., & Kuriyama, S., et al.(2011) Impact of physical activity and performance on medical care costs among the Japanese elderly. Geriatrics & Gerontology International, 11(2),157-165. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1447-0594.2010.00651.x




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15366/rimcafd2017.67.011

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.