Influencia de la agresividad sobre el rendimiento de equipos de fútbol en España / The Influence of Aggressiveness on the Performance of Football Teams in Spain

P.A García García, J.A. Martínez, F.J. González-Gómez


La agresividad es un concepto complejo de definir, y que engloba aquellas acciones encaminadas a dañar al rival. Pueden estar justificadas como un instrumento para conseguir el objetivo del equipo o ser una manifestación de violencia explícita. El objeto de esta investigación es comprobar si esa creencia sobre el juego agresivo tiene soporte empírico, al analizar su influencia en la variación en el marcador en los partidos disputados en la 1ª división de la liga española de fútbol durante las temporadas 2007/2008 y 2008/2009. Para ello, se distingue entre agresión instrumental y hostil como diferentes niveles de agresividad. Además, se mide el rendimiento de los equipos en relación al cambio en el marcador, una variable reflejada directamente sobre los goles, y no sobre otras variables de juego que pueden o no traducirse en cambios en el marcador. Los resultados muestran, globalmente, que la agresividad tiene efectos negativos sobre el rendimiento.

PALABRAS CLAVE: Agresividad, fútbol, rendimiento, agresión hostil, agresión instrumental, deportes


Aggressiveness is a complex concept to define and one which includes actions
intended to harm a rival. Such actions can be justified as a means to
achieving the goals of the team, or simply a manifestation of explicit violence. The aim of this research was to test whether the belief that aggressive play reaps benefits has empirical support byanalyzing its influence on the variation in the scoring of all matches in the 1st division of the Spanish football league, for the 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 seasons. In order to do so, we distinguished between instrumental and hostile aggression as different levels of aggressiveness. Furthermore, we measured the performance of teams through changes in the scoreboard, that is to say, when a goal is scored. Results derived from the estimation of five different models showed, overall, that aggressiveness has a negative impact on team performance.

KEYWORDS: Aggression, football, performance, hostile aggression, instrumental aggression, sports

Texto completo:



Albrecht, D. (1979). Zur sportartspezifischen aggression im wettkapfspiel. Sportwissenshaft, 9, 78-91.

Andrews, R. (1974). A Spearman rank order correlation for 18 NHL teams. In National Hockey League Guide. Montreal: NHL publishers.

Arkes, J. y Martinez, J. A. (2011). Finally, evidence for a Momentum Effect in the NBA. Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports, 7 (3) Article 13.

Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: a social learning analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Berkowitz, L. (1989). Frustration-aggression hypothesis: Examination and reformulation. Psychological Bulletin, 105, 59-73.

Coulumb-Cabagno, G., y Rascle, O. (2006). Team sports players’ observed aggression as a function of gender, competitive level, and sport type. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 36, 1980–2000.

Crawford, B. J., Stuart, M. J., Smith, A. M., y Brennan, R. D. (2004). Intimidation in ice hockey: An exploratory assessment. In D. J. Pearsall, & A. B. Ashare (Eds.), Safety in ice hockey: Fourth volume, (pp. 26-39). West Conshohocken, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials International.

Dobson, S. y Goddard, J. (2011). The economics of football. 2nd Edition. New York; Cambridge University Press.

Dohmen, T. J. (2003). In support of the supporters? Do social forces shape decisions of the imparciality? Discussion Papers IZA DP 755. Institute for the Study of Labor.

Dohmen, T. J. (2008). The influence of social forces: Evidence from the behavior of football referees. Economic Inquiry, 46, 411-424.

Dollard, J., Doob, L., Miller,N., Mowrer, O., y Sears, R. (1939). Frustration and aggression. New Haven : Yale University Press.

Gambetti, E., y Giusberti, F. (2008). Dispositional anger and risk decision-making. Mind & Society, 8, 7-20.

Grange, P., y Kerr, J. H. (2010). Physical aggression in Australian football: A qualitative study of elite athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11, 36-43.

Hanegby, R., y Tenenbaum, G. (2001). Blame it on the racket: Norm-breaking behaviours among junior tennis players. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2, 117-134.

Hoechle, D. (2007). Robust standard errors for panel regressions with cross-sectional dependence. Stata Journal, 7, 281–312.

Husman, B: F. y Silva, J.M. (1984) Aggression in sport: Definitional and theoretical considerations. In J.M. Silva & R.S. Weinberg (Eds.) Psychological foundations of sport. Champaign Illinois: Human Kinetics.

Kerr, J. H. (2005). Rethinking aggression and violence in sport. Routledge: London.

Martínez, J. A. y Martínez, L. (2010). El uso de indicadores de desempeño normalizados para la valoración de jugadores: El caso de las estadísticas por minuto en baloncesto. European Journal of Human Movement, 24, 39-62.

Martínez, J. A. (2012). Entrenador nuevo, ¿victoria segura? Evidencia en baloncesto. Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte.

McCarthy, J. F., y Kelly, B. R. (1978a). Aggression, performance variables, and anger self-report in ice hockey players. Journal of Psychology, 99, 97-101.

McCarthy, J. F., y Kelly, B. R. (1978b). Aggressive behavior and its effect on performance over time in ice hockey athletes: An archival study. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 9, 90-96.

Neave, N., y Wolfson, S. (2003). Testosterone, territoriality, and the ‘home advantage’. Physiology and Behavior, 78, 269-275.

Nevill, A. M., Balmer, N. J. y Williams, A. M. (2002) The influence of crowd noise and experience upon refereeing decisions in football. Psychol. Sport Exer., 3, 261–272.

Page, K. y Page, L. (2010). Alone against the crowd: Individual differences in referees’ ability to cope under pressure. Journal of Economic Psychology, 31, 192-199.

Pollard, R. y Pollard, G. (2005). Long-term trends in home advantage in professional team sports in North America and England (1876–2003). Journal of Sports Sciences, 23, 337–350.

Pollard, R. y Gómez, M. (2009). Home advantage in football in South-West Europe: long term trends, regional variation, and team differences. European Journal of Sport Science, 9, 341–352.

Reed, D. y O’Donoghue, P. G. (2005). Development and application of computer-based prediction methods. International Journal of Performance Analysis of Sport (e) 5 (3), 12-28.

Russell, G. W. (1974). Machiavellianism, locus of control, aggression, performance and precautionary behavior in ice hockey. Human Relations, 27, 825–837.

Sampaio, J., Drikwater, E. J. y Leite, N. M. (2010). Effects of season period, team quality, and playing time on basketball players' game-related statistics. European Journal of Sport Science, 10 (2), 141-149.

Smith, M. D. (1983). Violence and sport. Butterworths: Toronto.

Traclet, A., Rascle, O., Souchon, N., Coulomb-Cabagno, G., Petrucci, C. y Ohbuchi, K. (2009). Aggression in Soccer: An Exploratory Study of Accounts Preference. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 80, 398-402.

Wagner, S. (2010). Managerial succession and organizational performance—Evidence from the German Soccer League. Managerial and Decision Economics, 31 (6), 415-430.

Wankel, L. M. (1973): An examination of illegal aggression in inter-collegiate hockey. In Williams, I. D., and Wankel, L.M. (Eds.): Proceedings of the Fourth Canadian Psycho-Motor Learning and Sports Psychology Symposium (531-542). Ottawa: National Health and Welfare.

Weinberg, R.S. y Gould, D. (1995). Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology. USA: Human Kinetics.

Widmeyer, W. N. y Birch, J. S. (1984). Aggression in professional ice hockey: A strategy for success or reaction to failure? Journal of Psychology, 117, 77-84.

Widmeyer, W. N., Dorsch, K. D., Bray, S. R. y McGuire, E. J. (2002). The nature, prevalence, and consequence of aggression in sport. In J. M. Silva & D. E. Stevens (Eds.), Psychological foundations of sport (328–351). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Wilcox, R. R. (2010). Fundamentals of Modern Statistical Methods: Substantially Improving Power and Accuracy. Springer, 2nd Ed, New York.

Winston, W. L. (2009). Mathletics: how gamblers, managers, and sports enthusiasts use mathematics in baseball, basketball, and football. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Wright, M. A. (2009). The relationship between team-level aggression and basketball performance. Master Thesis. The Georgia Institute of Technology: Atlanta.

Zitek, E. M., y Jordan, A. H. (2011). Anger, aggression, and athletics: Technical fouls predict performance outcomes in the NBA. Athletic Insight, 3, 29–39.


Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.