El modelo de Vallerand en adolescentes asturianos: implementación y extensión / Vallerand´s Model in Asturian Adolescents: Implementation and Development

A. Méndez-Giménez, J. Fernández-Río, J.A. Cecchini-Estrada

Resumen


Se examinó la secuencia del modelo de Vallerand (1997) en el contexto de la educación física: Los factores sociales influyen en los mediadores psicológicas, que a su vez predicen los tipos de motivación, que dan lugar a determinadas consecuencias. Tomando como base el Modelo de Vallerand y el estudio empírico de Ntoumanis (2001), este trabajo se propuso comprobar el modelo completo en todas sus secuencias con una muestra de estudiantes adolescentes asturianos (N=507) de una franja de edad más amplia (12-17 años), incluyendo como factor social una subdimensión distinta al trabajo original (papel importante) e introduciendo dos nuevas consecuencias motivacionales (diversión y grado de presión percibida). Se administraron versiones españolas de diversos cuestionarios: PMCSQ-2, BPNES, PLOC, IMI (diversión, esfuerzo percibido y presión percibida) y consecuencias motivacionales (aburrimiento e intención de práctica). El análisis factorial confirmatorio reveló que los datos se ajustaban bien al modelo, y que las tres necesidades psicológicas mediaban entre el clima de tarea y la motivación intrínseca. Ésta predijo positivamente la diversión, el esfuerzo e intención de práctica, y negativamente, el aburrimiento. La competencia percibida resultó el predictor más fuerte, influyendo positivamente en la motivación más autónoma y, negativamente, en la más controlada. La desmotivación predijo positivamente el aburrimiento y la presión y, negativamente, el esfuerzo.

PALABRAS CLAVE: Autodeterminación, Educación Física, Regulaciones motivacionales, Modelo Jerárquico

 

ABSTRACT

The complete sequence of Vallerand’s model (1997) was examined in the context of physical education: Social factors influence the psychological mediators, which in turn predicted motivation types, which lead to certain consequences. Based on the Vallerand´s Model and Ntoumanis (2001) empirical study, this investigation was undertaken to test the full model in all sequences with a sample of Asturian adolescents students (N = 507) of a wider age range (12 -17 years), including as a social factor a distinct sub-dimension to the original work (relevant role) and introducing two new motivational consequences (fun and degree of perceived pressure). The Spanish validated version of these questionnaires was used: PMCSQ-2, BPNES, PLOC, three subscales of IMI (enjoyment, effort, and competence) and other motivational outcomes such as boredom and future sport participation. Results from the Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed that the data fit the model proposed, and the three psychological needs mediated between the task climate and the intrinsic motivation. This positively predicted enjoyment, effort and future sport participation, and negatively boredom. Competence was the stronger predictor, positively influencing the most autonomous types of motivation, and negatively the more controlled ones. Amotivation positively predicted boredom and pressure, and negatively, effort.

KEYWORDS: Self-determination, Physical education, Motivational regulations, Hierarchical Model


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15366/rimcafd2016.64.006

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