Núm. 63 (2016)

Riesgo de deshidratación entre deportistas y sedentarios con discapacidad intelectual / Incidence of Hypohidration in Athletes and Sedentary Male Adults with Intellectual Disability

Publicado septiembre 15, 2016


El presente estudio descriptivo de tipo transversal se diseñó para determinar el nivel de hidratación de deportistas con discapacidad intelectual y su comparación con adultos sedentarios con la misma discapacidad.

Participaron 22 deportistas federados que realizan el mismo programa de entrenamiento además de 22 adultos sedentarios ajustados en sexo, edad y cociente de inteligencia. Los parámetros ensayados fueron la densidad urinaria determinada mediante refractómetro así como la ingesta diaria de líquido ad-libitum. Este protocolo fue aprobado por un Comité de Ética Institucional.

Tan solo 6 deportistas (21,6%) presentaron valores de euhidratación frente a 9 (40,9%) de los participantes sedentarios incluidos en el grupo control. Las únicas diferencias significativas respecto a la ingesta de líquidos se estableció precisamente entre deportistas y sedentarios con euhidratación.

Se concluye que los deportistas con discapacidad intelectual se encuentran en riesgo de deshidratación que podría explicarse, al menos en parte, por una insuficiente ingesta hídrica.

PALABRAS CLAVE: Discapacidad intelectual; Deporte; deshidratación; Densidad de orina



The current study was designed to determine hydration status of well-trained, male athletes with ID. A secondary purpose was to compare these results with hydration status of sedentary young adults with ID.

A total of 22 athletes with ID volunteered for this cross-sectional, descriptive study. The control group included 22, age, sex and IQ-matched sedentary adults with ID. Main outcome measurements were urine specific gravity (USG) and daily fluid intake for three consecutive days.

With regard to athletes with ID, it was found that 5 participants (21,7%) stayed significantly hypohydrated, 12 athletes (52,2%) appeared hypohydrated and 6 participants (26,1%) stayed euhydrated. In fact, a significantly lower percentage of athletes was euhydrated when compared to sedentary matched adults with ID (26,1vs.40,9%;?2=5,67;p<001).

In conclusion, athletes with ID are at increased risk of dehydration that may be explained, at least in part, given that ad-libitum fluid consumption was insufficient.

KEY WORDS: Intellectual disability; Sport; dehydration; urine specific gravity


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