Efectos de bebidas carbohidratadas y proteicas sobre la recuperación del esfuerzo / Effects of Carbohydrate–Protein Beverages on Recovery of the Exercise

M. Cepero González, R. Padial Ruz, F.J. Rojas Ruiz, D. Romero Sánchez, J.C. De la Cruz Márquez


Este artículo aporta una revisión del efecto de la coingesta de la proteína de suero de leche y proteína caseína administradas en bebidas carbohidratadas, sobre la recuperación y los parámetros del daño muscular en ejercicios de larga duración. La búsqueda se ha realizado en abril de 2013 en las bases de datos del ISI Web of Knowledge, SCOPUS, Sport Discuss, PubMed, Medline, Sportdiscus, y en las bases de datos CINDOC en las redes CTI-CSIC, RESH, DICE y DIALNET cruzando los descriptores “Exercise”, “Resistance training” y “Recovery” con los términos “Ergogenic beverage”, “Casein Protein” y “Whey Protein”. La estrategia nutricional más respaldada es la ingesta de un preparado líquido carbohidratado en donde se combinan proteínas de diferentes fuentes sobre pruebas de esfuerzos prolongados similares a la competición tanto en deportes individuales como en colectivos, con resultados discrepantes.

PALABRAS CLAVES: Bebida ergogénica, recuperación, proteína caseína, proteína de suero de leche.


This manuscript shows a review about the effects of the whey and casein protein on recovery and parameters of muscle damage in long-term exercise. The search was conducted in April 2013 in the databases of ISI Web of Knowledge, SCOPUS, PubMed, Medline, SportDiscus, and databases on Spanish networks CINDOC CTI-CSIC, RESH, DICE, and DIALNET crossing the descriptors "Exercise", "Resistance training" and "Recovery" with the terms "Ergogenic Beverage", "Casein Protein" and "Whey Protein". The most used nutritional strategies are based in a carbohydrate beverage which combines different protein sources on prolonged exercise tests similar to sports competition, in both individual and collective sports, with discrepant results.

KEY WORDS: Ergogenic Beverage, Recovery, Casein Protein, Whey Protein.

Texto completo:



Alghannam, A. (2011). Carbohydrate-protein ingestion improves subsequent running capacity towards the end of a football-specific intermittent exercise. Applied Physiology, Nutrition & Metabolism, 36 (5), 748-757. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/h11-097

Anderson, O. (2001). Why high-carb recovery drinks are more effective than carb-protein mixtures. Peak Performance, 146, 6-8.

Antonio, J., Kalman, D., Stout, J., Greenwood, M., Willoughby, D., Gregory, G (2008). Essentials of Sports Nutrition and Supplements. Texas, USA. Ed: Humana Press, International Society of Sport Nutrition. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1744-1161(08)70407-1

Beelen, M., Burke, L., M, Gibaia, M. J. y Van Loon, L.J.C. (2010). Nutritional Strategies to Promote Postexercise Recovery. International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism, 20 (6), 515- 518.

Betts, J., Williams, C., Duffy, K. y Gunner, F. (2007). The influence of carbohydrate and protein ingestion during recovery from prolonged exercise on subsequent endurance performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25, (13), 1449-1460. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640410701213459

Bilsborough, S. y Mann, N. (2006). A review of issue of dietary protein intake in humans. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 16, 129-152.

Biolo, G., Tipton, K.D., Klein, S. y Wolfe. R. R. (1997). An abundant supply of amino acids enhances the metabolic effect of exercise on muscle protein. American Journal Physiology, 273, 122–129.

Bloomstrand, E., Hassmen, P. y Newsholme, E. (1991). Effect of branch-chain amino acid supplementation on mental performance. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 143, 225-226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-1716.1991.tb09225.x

Boirie, Y., Dangin, M., Gachon, P., Vasson, M. P., Maubois, J. L. y Beaufrere, B. (1997). Slow and fast dietary proteins differently modulate postprandial protein accretion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of USA, 94, 14930–14935. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.94.26.14930

Borsheim, E., Aarsland, A. y Wolfe, R.R. (2004). Effect of an amino acid, protein, and carbohydrate mixture on net muscle protein balance after resistance exercise. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 1, 255-271.

Breen, L., Tipton, K., Jeukendrup, D. y Asker, E. (2010). No Effect of Carbohydrate-Protein on Cycling Performance and Indices of Recovery. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42 (6), 1140-1149.

Burke, E. R. (1999). Optimal Muscle Recovery: Your Guide to Achieving Peak Physical Performance, Garden City Park, NY: Avery Publishing Group.

Burke, L.M., Castell. L.M., Stear, S.J., Rogers, P.J., Blomstrand, E., Gurr, S., Mitchell, N., Stephens, M.B. y Greenhaff, P.L. (2012). BJMS Reviews. A-Z Nutritional supplements: dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance Part 4. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 44, 389-391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2010.072405

Calbet, J.A. y McLean, D.A. (2002). Plasma glucagons and insulin responses depend on the rate of appearance of amino acids after ingestion of different protein solutions in humans. Journal of Nutrition, 132, 2174-2182.

Carli, G., Bonifazi, M., Lodi, L., Lupo, C., Martelli, G. y Viti, A. (1992). Changes in the exercise-induced hormone response to branched chain amino acid administration. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 6, 272-277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00626291

Cathcart, A., Murgatroyd, S., McNab, A., Whyte, L. y Easton, C. (2011). Combined carbohydrate-protein supplementation improves competitive endurance exercise performance in the heat. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 111, (9), 2051-206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-011-1831-5

Cepero, M., Padial, R., Rojas, F.J., Geerlings, A., De la Cruz, J.C. y Boza, J.J. (2010). Influence of ingesting casein protein and whey protein Carbohydrate beverages on recovery and performance of an Endurance cycling test. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, V (II), 158-175. http://dx.doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2010.52.06

Cepero, M., Rojas, F. J., Geerlings, A., de la Cruz, J. C., Romero, S. y Boza, J. J. (2009). Effects of a carbohydrate and a carbohydrate and casein protein beverages on recovery and performance of endurance cycling capacity. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 4 (2), 72-77. http://dx.doi.org/:10.4100/jhse.2009.42.09

Colombani, P.C., Kovacs, C., Frey-Rindova, P., Frey, W., Langhans, W., Arnold, M. y Wenk, C. (1999). Metabolic effects of a protein supplemented carbohydrate drink in marathon runners, International Journal of Sport Nutrition, 9,181-201.

Dangin, M., Boirie, Y., Guillet, C. y Beaufrere, B. (2002). Influence of the protein digestion rate on protein turnover in young and elderly subjects. Journal of Nutrition, 13, 3228S–3233S.

Davis, J.M. (1995). Carbohydrates, branched-chain amino acids, and endurance, The central fatigue hypothesis. International Journal of Sport Nutrition, 5, S29-38.

Davis, J.M., Welsh, R.S. y Alerson, N.A. (2000). Effects of carbohydrate and chromium ingestion during intermittent high-intensity exercise to fatigue. International Journal of Sport Nutrion Exercise & Metabolism, 10, 476 - 485.

Di Pasquale, M.G. (1997). Amino acids and proteins for the athlete: The anabolic edge. In Energy-Yielding Macronutrients and Energy Metabolism in: Sports Nutrition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Elliot, T. A., Cree, M.G., Sanford, A.P., Wolfe, R.R. y Tipton, K. D. (2006). Milk ingestion stimulates net muscle protein synthesis following resistance exercise. Medicine Sciences of Sports Exercise, 3, 667–674. http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000210190.64458.25

Ferguson-Stegall, L., McCleave, E., Zhenping, D., Kammer, L., Bei, W., Doerner, P., Yang, L. y Ivy, J.L. (2010). The effect of a low carbohydrate beverage with added protein on cycling endurance performance in trained athletes. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24 (10), 2577- 2587. http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181ecccca

Fogt, D.L. y Ivy, J.L. (2000). Effects of post exercise carbohydrate-protein supplement on skeletal muscle glycogen storage. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5) Suppl, (47th Annual Meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, May 29-31, 2000).

Gasier, H. y Olson, C. (2010). The Effects of a Carbohydrate-Protein Drink on Performance and Mood in U.S. Para rescue Trainees. Journal of Exercise Physiology online, 13 (3), 22-31.

Goh, Q., Boop, CA., Luden, ND., Smith, AG., Womack, CJ., Saunders, M.J. (2012). Recovery from Cycling Exercise: Effects of Carbohydrate and Protein Beverages. Nutrients, 4, 568-584. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu4070568

González-Gallego, J. (2006). Nutrición en el deporte: ayudas ergogénicas y dopaje. Madrid: Díaz de Santos,Fundación Universitaria Iberoamericana.

Green, M., Corona, B., Doyle, J. y Ingalls, C. (2008) Carbohydrate-Protein Drinks Do Not Enhance Recovery from Exercise-Induced Muscle Injury. International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism, 18 (1), 1-18.

Highton, J., Twist, C., Lamb, K. y Nicholas, C. (2013). Carbohydrate-protein coingestion improves multiple-sprint running performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 31, 361-369. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2012.735370

Hoffman, J.R. (2007). Protein Intake: Effect of Timing. Journal of Strength Conditioning, 29, 26-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/1533-4295(2007)29[26:PIEOT]2.0.CO;2 http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/00126548-200712000-00005

Hoffman, J.R. y Falvo, M.J. (2004). Protein–which is best?, Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 3, 118-130.

Howarth, K., Moreau, N., Phillips, S. y Gibala, M. (2009). Coingestion of protein with carbohydrate during recovery from endurance exercise stimulates skeletal muscle protein synthesis in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 106(4), 1394-1402. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.90333.2008

Ivy, J. (2004). Regulation of muscle glycogen repletion, muscle protein synthesis and repair following exercise. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 3, 131-38.

Ivy, J.L., Res, P., Sprague, R. y Widzer, M. (2003). Effect of a carbohydrate-protein supplement on endurance performance during exercise of varying intensity. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 13, 388–401.

Jentjens R, & Jeukendrup A. (2003). Determinants of post-exercise glycogen synthesis during short-term recovery. Sports Medicine, 33(2),117-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200333020-00004

Jeukendrup, A. (2007). Carbohydrate Supplementation during Exercise: Does it help? How much is too much? Sports Science Exchange, 106, 20 (3).

Jeukendrup, A.E.. y Jentjens, R. (2000). Oxidation of CHO feedings during prolonged exercise: current thoughts, guidelines, and directions for future research. Sports Medicine, 29, 407-424. http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200029060-00004

Karlsson, H.K.R., Nilsson, P.A., Nilsson, J., y cols. (2004) Branched chain amino acids increase phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle after resistance exercise. American Journal of Physiology Endocrinology Metabolism, 287, E1–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00430.2003

Kerksick, C.M., Rasmussen, C.J., Lancaster, S.L., Magu, B., Smith, P. y Melton, C. (2006).The effects of protein and amino acid supplementation on performance and training adaptations during ten weeks of resistance training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2, 643-653. http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/R-17695.1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200608000-00028

Kern, M. (2005). Sports Nutrition. NY., USA :Taylor & Francis.

Koopman, R., Wagenmakers, A.J.M., Manders, R.J.F., Zorenc, A.H.G., Senden, J.M.G., Gorselink, M., Keizer, H.A. y Van Loon, L.J.C. (2005). Combined ingestion of protein and free leucine with carbohydrate increases postexercise muscle protein synthesis in vivo in male subjects. American Journal of Physiology and Endocrinology. Metabolism, 288, E645–E653. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00413.2004

Kreider, R.B. (1998). Central fatigue hypothesis and overtraining. In Kreider RB, Fry AC, O'Toole M (editors), Overtraining in Sport. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics, 309-331.

Kreider, R.B., Miriel, V. y Bertun, E. (1993). Aminoacid supplementation and exercise performance: proposed ergogenic value. Sports Medicine, 16, 190-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199316030-00004

Lowery, M.L:. (2012). Dietary Protein and Resistance Exercise. Florida, USA: ED. CRC Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/b11928

MacLaren, D. (2007). Nutrition and sport. New York : Elsevier.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-4-11 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-443-10341-4.50003-5

Madsen, K., McLean, D.A., Kiens, B. y Christiansen, D. (1996). Effects of glucose, glucose plus branched-chain amino acids, or placebo on bike performance over 100km. Journal of Applied Physiology, 81(6), 2644-2650.

Manninen, A. H. (2004). Protein Hydrolysates In Sports And Exercise: A Brief Review. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 3, 60-63.

Manninen, A.H. (2006). Hyperinsulinaemia, hyperaminoacidaemia and post-exercise muscle anabolism: the search for the optimal recovery drink. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 11, 900-905. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2006.030031

Maughan, R.J. y Murray, R. (2009). Sports Drinks: Basic Science and Practical Aspects . New York, USA: CRC Press .

McBrier, N., Vairo, G., Bagshaw, D., Lekan, J., Bordi, P. y Kris-Etherton, P. (2010). Cocoa-based protein and carbohydrate drink decreases perceived soreness after exhaustive aerobic exercise: a pragmatic preliminary analysis. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(8), 2203-2210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181e4f7f9

McDonalds, L. (2009). Applied Nutrition for Mixed Sports. USA: Ed. Softback.

McGlory, C. y Morton, J. (2010). The Effects of Postexercise Consumption of High- Molecular-Weight Versus Low-Molecular-Weight Carbohydrate Solutions on Subsequent High-Intensity Interval-Running Capacity. International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism, 20 (5), 361-369.

McLean, D.A., Graham, T.E. y Saltin, B. (1996). Stimulation of muscle amrnonia production during exercise following branched chain amino acid supplementation in humans. Journal of Physiology, 493, 902-922.

Millard-Stafford, M., Warren, G., Thomas, L., Doyle, J., Snow, T. y Hitchcock, K. (2005). Recovery from Run Training: Efficacy of a Carbohydrate-Protein Beverage? International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism, 15(6), 610-624.

Miller, S.L., Tipton, K.D., Chinkes, D.L., Wolf, S.E. y Wolfe, R.R. (2003). Independent and combined effects of amino acids and glucose after resistance exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35, 449-455. http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000053910.63105.45

Moore, R.W., Saunders, M.J., Pratt, C.A., Hammer, M.C., Lehman,K.L., Todd, K., Flohr, J.A. y Kies, A.K. (2007). Improved tme to exhaustion with carbohydrate-protein hydrolysate beverage. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise,39, Suppl.:S89-S90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000273263.06127.e6

Naclerio, F.J. (2007). Utilización de las Proteínas y Aminoácidos como Suplementos o Integradores Dietéticos. PubliCE Standard. Pid: 766.

Newsholme, E.A. y Blomstrand E. (2006). Branched chain amino acids and central fatigue. Journal of Nutrition, 136. 274–276S.

Newsholme, E.A., Parry-Billings, M., McAndrew, M. y cols. (1991). Biochemical mechanism to explain some characteristics of overtraining. In Brouns F (editor): Medical Sports Science, Vol. 32, Advances in Nutrition and Top Sport (pages 79-93). Basel, Germany: Karger.

Niles, E.S., Lachowetz, T., Garfi, J., Sullivan, W., Smith, J.C., Leyh, B.P. y Headley, S.A. (2001). Carbohydrate-protein drink improves time to exhaustion after recovery from endurance exercise. Journal of Exercise Physiology, 4, 45–52.

Osterberg, K.L, Zachwieja, J.J. y Smith, J.W. (2008). Carbohydrate and carbohydrate + protein for cycling time-trial performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26, 227–233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640410701459730

Pérez-Guisado, J. (2009). Importancia del momento en que se realiza la ingestión de los nutrientes. Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte, 9 (33), 14-24.

Philips, S.M. (2013). Protein consumption and resistance exercise: maximizing anabolic potential. Sports Science Exchange, 26, 107, 1-5.

Poole, C., Wilborn, C., Taylor, L. y Kerksick, C. (2010) The role of post-exercise nutrient administration on muscle protein synthesis and glycogen synthesis. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 9 (3), 354-364.

Portier, H., Chatard, J.C., Filaire, E., y cols. (2008) Effects of branched chain amino acids supplementation on physiological and psychological performance during an offshore sailing race. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 104, 787–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-008-0832-5

Rasmussen, B.B., Tipton, K.D., Miller, S.L., Wolf, S. y Wolfe, R. (2000). An oral essential amino acid-carbohydrate supplement enhances muscle protein anabolism after resistance exercise. Journal Applied Physiology, 88, 386-392.

Ready, S.L., Seifert, J.G. y Burke, E. (1999). The effect of two sports drinks formulations on muscle stress and performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31, S124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199905001-00457

Reitelseder, S., Agergaard, J., Doessing, S., Helmark, I.C., Lund, P., Kristensen, N.B., Frystyk, J., Flyvbjerg, A., Schjerling, P., Van Hall, G., Kjaer, M. y Holm. L. (2010). Whey and casein labeled with l-[1-13C] leucine and muscle protein synthesis: effect of resistance exercise and protein ingestion. American Journal of Physiology Endocrinology and Metabolism, 200 (1), E231- E242.

Richter, E., Mikines, A.K.J., Galbo, H. y Kiens, B. (1989). Effect of exercise on insulin action in human skeletal muscle. Journal Applied Physiology, 66, 876–885.

Romano-Ely, B.C., Todd, M.K., Saunders, M.J. y Laurent, T.S. (2006). Effect of an isocaloric carbohydrate-protein-antioxidant drink on cycling performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38, 1608–1616. http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000229458.11452.e9

Saunders, M.J, Kane, M.D. y Todd, M.K. (2004). Effects of a carbohydrate–protein beverage on cycling endurance and muscle damage. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36, 1233–1238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000132377.66177.9F

Saunders, M.J, Luden, N.D, Pratt, C.A. & Moore, R.W. (2006). Carbohydrate and protein hydrolysate beverage improves late-race cycling performance and prevents post-exercise muscle damage. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 3(1):S20.

Saunders, M.J. (2007). Coingestion of carbohydrate-protein during endurance exercise: Influence on performance and recovery. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 17, S87–S103.

Saunders, M.J., Luden, N.D. y Herrick, J.E. (2007). Consumption of an oral carbohydrateprotein gel improves cycling endurance and prevents post-exercise muscle damage. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21, 678–684. http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200708000-00005 http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/R-20506.1

Saunders, M.J., Moore, R., Kies, A.K., Luden, N.D. y Pratt, C.A. (2009). Carbohydrate and Protein Hydrolysate: Coingestion's improvement of Late-Exercise Time-Trial Performance. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 19, 136-149.

Schedl, H.P., Muaghan, R.J. y Gisolfi, C.B. (1994). Intestinal absorption during rest and exercise: implications for formulating an oral rehydration solution (ors). Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 2, 267–280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199403000-00001

Shephard, R.J. (2012a) The Impact of Ramadan Observance upon Athletic Performance. Nutrients, 4(6), 491-505. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu4060491

Shephard, R.J. (2012b). Physical performance and training response during Ramadan observance, with particular reference to protein metabolism. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 46, 477-484. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2011-090849

Skillen, R.A., Testa, M, Applegate, E.A., Heiden, E.A., Fascetti, A.J. y Casazza, G.A. (2008). Effects of an Amino Acid–Carbohydrate Drink on Exercise Performance After Consecutive-Day Exercise Bouts. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 18, 473-492.

Tang, J.E., Moore, D.R., Kujbida, G.W.,Tarnopolsky, M.A. y Phillips, S.M. (2009) Ingestion of whey hydrolysate, casein, or soy protein isolate: effects on mixed muscle protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in young men. Journal of Applied Physiology, 107 (3), 987-992. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00076.2009

Thomas, J.R., Nelson, J.K, y Silverman, S. (2011). Research Methods in Physical Activity. 6th Edition. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics.

Tipton, K.D. y Wolfe, R.R. (2004). Protein and amino acids for athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22 (1), 65-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0264041031000140554

Tipton, K.D., Elliot, T.A., Cree, M.G., Wolf, S.E., Sanford, A.P., y Wolf, R.R. (2004). Ingestion of casein and whey proteins results in muscle anabolism after resistance exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36, 2073–2081. http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000147582.99810.C5

Tipton, K.D., Elliott, T.A., Cree, M.G., Aarsland, A.A, Sanford, A.P. y Wolfe, R.R. (2007). Stimulation of net muscle protein synthesis by whey protein ingestion before and after exercise. American Journal Physiology Endocrinology Metabolism, 292, E71-E76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00166.2006

Tipton, K.D., Ferrando, A.A., Phillips, S.M., Doyle Jr, D. & Wolfe, R.R. (1999a). Postexercise net protein synthesis in human muscle from orally administered amino acids. American Journal Physiology Endocrinology Metabolism, 276, E628-E634.

Tipton, K.D., Gurkin, B.E., Matin, S. & Wolfe, R.R. (1999b). Non essential amino acids are not necessary to stimulate net muscle protein synthesis in healthy volunteers. Journal Nutrition Biochemistry, 10, 89-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0955-2863(98)00087-4

Tipton, K.D., Rasmussen, B.B, Miller, S.L, Wolf, S.E, Owens-Stovall, S.K, Petrini, B.E. y Wolfe, R.R, (2001). Timing of amino acid-carbohydrate ingestion alters anabolic response of muscle to resistance exercise. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, 281, E197–E206.

Tonne, R. y Betts, J. (2010). Isocaloric Carbohydrate Versus Carbohydrate-Protein Ingestion and Cycling Time-Trial Performance. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 20, 34-43.

Valentine, R.J., Saunders, M.J., Todd, M.K. y St Laurent, T.G. (2008). Influence of carbohydrate-protein beverage on cycling endurance and indices of muscle disruption. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 18, 363–378.

Van Essen, M. y Gibala, M.J. (2006). Failure of protein to improve time trial performance when added to a sports drink. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38, 1476–1483. http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000228958.82968.0a

Van Hall, G., Raymakers, J.S.H., Saris, W.H.M. y Wagenmakers, A.J.M. (1995). Ingestion of branched-chain amino acids md tryptophan during sustained exercise in man: failure to affect performance. Journal of Physiology, 48, 789-794. http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.1995.sp020854

Van Hall, G., Shirreffs, S.M. y Calbet, J.A. (2000). Muscle glycogen resynthesis during recovery from cycle exercise: No effect of additional protein ingestion. Journal of Applied Physiology, 88, 1631–1636.

Van Loon, L.J., Kruijshoop, M., Verhagen, H., Saris, W.H., y Wagenmakers, A.J.(2000a). Ingestion of protein hydrolysate and amino acid-carbohydrate mixtures increases postexercise plasma insulin responses in men. Journal of Nutrition, 130, 2508–2513.

Van Loon, L.J., Saris, W.H., Kruijshoop, M. y Wagenmakers, A.J. (2000b). Maximizing postexercise muscle glycogen synthesis: Carbohydrate supplementation and the application of amino acid or protein hydrolysate mixtures. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72 (1), 106–111.

Van Loon, L.J., Saris, W.H., Verhagen, H. y Wagenmakers, A.J. (2000c). Plasma insulin responses after ingestion of different amino acid or protein mixtures with carbohydrate. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72 (1), 96-105.

Volek, J.S., Forsythe, C.E. y Kraemer, W.J. (2006). Nutritional aspects of women strength athletes. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40, 742-748. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2004.016709

Wagenmakers, A.J.M. (1998). Muscle amino acid metabolism at rest and during exercise: role in human physiology and metabolism. Exercise Sport Science Review, 26, 287-314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/00003677-199800260-00013

Wein, D. y Miraglia, M. (2011). Training table. Whey Protein vs. Casein Protein and Optimal Recovery. NSCA's Performance Training Journal, 10 (4), 14-22.

Westerterp, K.R. (2013) Energy Balance in Motion, NY, USA: Ed. Springer.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-34627-9

Wilborn, CD., Taylor, L.W., Outlaw, J., Williams, L., Campbell, B., Foster, C.A., Smith-Ryan, A., Urbina, S. y Hayward, S. (2013). The Effects of Pre- and Post-Exercise Whey vs. Casein Protein Consumption on Body Composition and Performance Measures in Collegiate Female Athletes. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 12. 74-79.

Wilkinson, S.B., Tarnopolsky, M.A., McDonald, M.J., McDonald, J.R., Armstrong, D. y Phillips. S.M. (2007). Consumption of fluid skim milk promotes greater muscle protein accretion after resistance exercise than does consumption of an isonitrogenous and isoenergetic soy-protein beverage. American Journal Clinical Nutrition, 85, 1031-1040.

Williams, M., Ivy, J. y Raven. P. (1999). Effects of recovery drinks after prolonged glycogen-depletion exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31, S124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199905001-00485

Williams, M.B, Rayen, P.B, Fogt, D.L. & Ivy. J.L. (2003). Effects of recovery beverages on glycogen restoration and endurance exercise performance. Journal of Strength Conditioning Research, 1, 12-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/1533-4287(2003)017<0012:EORBOG>2.0.CO;2 http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200302000-00003

Yaspelkis BB, Ivy JL. (1999) The effect of a carbohydrate-arginine supplement on postexercise carbohydrate metabolism. International Journal of Sport Nutrition, 9, 241 - 250.

Zawadzki, K.M., Yaspelkis, B.B. y Ivy, J.L. (1992). Carbohydrate-protein complex increases the rate of muscle glycogen storage after exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 72, 1854–1859.

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.