Entrenamiento en hipoxia intermitente y rendimiento ciclista en triatletas / Intermittent hypoxic training and cycling performance in triathletes

D.J. Ramos-Campo, F. Martínez, P. Esteban, J.A. Rubio-Arias, J.F. Jiménez

Resumen


Los deportistas incorporan como complemento a su entrenamiento convencional, programas de entrenamiento en altitud para incrementar el rendimiento. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar los efectos sobre el umbral anaeróbico (Uan) producidos por un programa de entrenamiento en hipoxia intermitente (IHT) en triatletas. Participaron 18 triatletas divididos en un grupo de entrenamiento en hipoxia (GIHT: n=9; Edad: 26 ± 6.73 años; Talla 173.33 ± 5.94 cm; Peso: 66.38 ± 5.91 kg) y un grupo control (GC: n=9; Edad: 29.27 ± 6.84 años; Talla 174.89 ± 4.59 cm; Peso: 71.59 ± 6.81 Kg). Se aplicó un programa de IHT, complementario al entrenamiento habitual de 7 semanas al 15-14.5% de FiO2, 2 sesiones semanales de 60 minutos en cicloergómetro a la intensidad del Uan. Se llevó a cabo un test de umbrales lácticos previo y otro posterior al programa. El tratamiento propuesto produce un incremento en la potencia y el esfuerzo percibido en el Uan y disminuye la frecuencia cardiaca en el umbral aeróbico (Uae) y el Uan.

PALABRAS CLAVE: Entrenamiento en Hipoxia Intermitente, altitud simulada, Umbral anaeróbico, Triatlón

 

ABSTRACT 

Athletes include altitude training as a complement to their conventional training to improve performance. The aim of the study was to analyze the effects on anaerobic threshold (AT) produced by an IHT program in triathletes. 18 male trained triathletes were divided into intermittent hypoxic training group (GIHT: n=9; age: 26±6.73 years, height 173.33±5.94 cm, weight: 66.38±5.91 kg) and control group (GC: n=9; age: 29.27±6.84 years, height 174.89±4.59 cm, weight: 71.59±6.81 kg). The IHT program consisted of two 60-min sessions per week at intensities over the AT and atmospheric conditions between 14.5 and 15% FiO2. Before and after the program, cycling performance in a lactate thresholds test was determined. The treatment caused an improvement in the power output and perceived exertion in AT and enhanced cardiac performance in the aerobic threshold and AT.

KEYWORDS: Intermittent Hypoxia Training, Simulated Altitude, Anaerobic Threshold, Triathlon.

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15366/rimcafd2016.61.011

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