Núm. 60 (2015)
REVISIONES/ REVIEWS

Métodos actuales de análisis del partido de fútbol / Current Methods of Soccer Match Analysis. pp. 785-803

Publicado diciembre 17, 2015

Resumen

Ha sido realizada una revisión de 86 artículos, con el objetivo de analizar a través de los estudios más recientes los beneficios y limitaciones de los nuevos sistemas para el análisis del futbolista durante el partido, debido a que las mayores exigencias en el rendimiento del fútbol moderno está obligando a replantearse cuáles son sus demandas físicas, así como los modelos de planificación y los métodos de entrenamiento tradicionales. Los resultados muestran que el vídeo análisis asistido por ordenador para la codificación de los patrones de movimiento y la tecnología GPS se presentan como herramientas de gran utilidad para conocer mejor la carga física del jugador, mientras que el diseño observacional facilita la evaluación del comportamiento técnico-táctico del futbolista y el equipo. Como conclusión podemos decir que hemos observado sin embargo una metodología diferente entre las opciones comerciales disponibles y una tecnología ubicada todavía en una etapa inicial de desarrollo.

PALABRAS CLAVE: análisis tiempo-movimiento, fútbol, sistema de seguimiento, GPS, diseño observacional.

 

ABSTRACT

A review of 86 references has been made, in order to analyze through the most recent studies the benefits and limitations of the new systems for the analysis of soccer player during the match, due to the fact that the greater performance requirements of modern soccer is forcing to review his physical demands, as well as planning models and traditional training methods. The results show that the computer-aided video analysis for coding movement patterns and the GPS technology are presented as very useful tools for a better understanding of the players physical load, whereas the observational design facilitates assessment of the technical-tactical behavior of the soccer player and the team. In conclusion we can say that we have however observed a different methodology among the available commercial options and a technology still placed at an initial stage of development.

KEY WORDS: time-motion analysis, soccer, tracking system, GPS, observational design.

Citas

Anguera, M.T. (2004). Hacia la búsqueda de estructuras regulares en la observación del fútbol: detección de patrones temporales. Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte: revista de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte de la Universidad Católica San Antonio, 1 (1), 15-20.

Ardá, T. y Anguera, M.T. (2000). Evaluación prospectiva en programas de entrenamiento de fútbol A 7 mediante indicadores de éxito en diseños diacrónicos intensivos retrospectivos. Psicothema, 12(Supl. 2), 52-55.

Bangsbo, J., Mohr, M. & Krustrup, P. (2006). Physical and metabolic demands of training and match-play in the elite football player. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24(7), 665-674. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640410500482529.

Bangsbo, J.; Nørregaard, L. & Thorsøe, F. (1991). Activity profile of competition soccer. Canadian Journal of Sports Science, 16(2), 110-116.

Barbero-Álvarez, J.C. & Castagna, C. (2007). Heart-rate and activity-speed of professional soccer players in match. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 6 (Suppl. 10), 208-209.

Barbero-Álvarez, J.C., Gómez, M., Barbero-Álvarez, V., Granda, J. y Castagna, C. (2008). Frecuencia cardíaca y patrón de actividad en jugadoras infantiles de fútbol. The Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 3(2), 1-11.

Barbero-Álvarez, J.C., Coutts, A., Granda, J., Barbero-Álvarez, V. & Castagna, C. (2010). The validity and reliability of a global positioning satellite system device to assess speed and repeated sprint ability (RSA) in athletes. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13(2), 232-235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2009.02.005.

Barris, S. & Button, C. (2008). A review of vision-based motion analysis in sport. Sports Medicine, 38(12), 1025-1043. http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200838120-00006.

Barros, R.M.L., Misuta, M.S., Menezes, R.P., Figueroa, P.J., Moura, F.A., Cunha, S.A., Anido, R. & Leite, N.J. (2007). Analysis of the distances covered by first division Brazilian soccer players obtained with an automatic tracking method. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 6(2), 233-242.

Bloomfield, J., Polman, R. & O’Donoghue, P.G. (2004). The ‘Bloomfield Movement Classification’: Motion analysis of individuals in team sports. International Journal of Performance Analysis of Sport-e, 4(2), 20-31.

Bloomfield, J., Jonsson, R., Polman, R. & O´Donnoghue, P. (2005). Temporal pattern analysis and its applicability in soccer. En L. Anolli, S. Duncan Jr., M.S. Magnusson & G. Riva (Eds.), The Hidden Structure of Interaction: From Neurons to Culture Patterns (pp. 238-250). Ámsterdam: IOS Press.

Bloomfield, J., Polman, R. & O´Donnoghue, P. (2007a). Physical demands of different positions in FA Premier League soccer. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 6, 63-70.

Bloomfield, J., Polman, R. & O’Donoghue, P.G. (2007b). Reliability of the Bloomfield Movement Classification. International Journal of Performance Analysis of Sport-e, 7(1), 20-27.

Borrie, A., Jonsson, G.K. & Magnusson, M.S. (2001). Application of T-pattern detection and analysis in sports research. Metodología de las Ciencias del Comportamiento, 3(2), 215-226.

Borrie, A., Jonsson, G.K. & Magnusson, M.S. (2002). Temporal pattern analysis and its applicability in sport: an explanation and exemplar data. Journal of Sports Sciences, 20, 845-852. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/026404102320675675.

Bradley, P.S. Sheldon, W., Wooster, B., Olsen, P., Boanas, P. & Krustrup, P.J. (2009a). High-intensity running in English FA Premier League soccer matches. Sports Science, 27(2), 159-168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640410802512775.

Bradley, P.S., Di Mascio, M., Peart, D., Wooster, B., Olsen, P. & Sheldon, B. (2009b). High-intensity activity profiles of elite soccer players at different performance levels. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(0), 1-9.

Burgess, D.J., Naughton, G. & Norton, K.I. (2006). Profile of movement demands of national football players in Australia. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 9(4), 334-341. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2006.01.005.

Carling, C., Bloomfield, J., Nelsen, L. & Reilly, T. (2008). The role of motion analysis in elite soccer: contemporary performance measurement techniques and work rate data. Sports Medicine, 38(10), 839-862. http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200838100-00004.

Carling, C. (2010). Analysis of physical activity profiles when running with the ball in a professional soccer team. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(3), 319-326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640410903473851.

Castagna, C., D'Ottavio, S. & Abt, G. (2003). Activity profile of young soccer players during actual match play. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 17(4), 775-80.

Castellano, J., Masach, J. y Zubillaga, A. (1996). Cuantificación del esfuerzo físico del jugador de fútbol en competición. Fútbol Training, 7, 27-42.

Castellano, J. y Hernández-Mendo, A. (2003). El análisis de coordenadas polares para la estimación de relaciones en la interacción motriz en fútbol. Psicothema, 15(4), 569-574.

Castellano, J., Perea A. & Alday, L. (2005). Match Vision Studio v3.0. En 5th International Conference on Methods and Techniques in Behavioral Research, agosto, Wageningen, Países Bajos.

Castellano, J., Alday, L. & Hernández-Mendo, A. (2008a). The measuring and observation tool in Sports. (2008). Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 809-905. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BRM.40.3.898.

Castellano, J., Perea, A. y Hernández-Mendo, A. (2008b). Análisis de la evolución del fútbol a lo largo de los mundiales. Psicothema, 20(4), 928-932.

Castellano, J., Blanco-Villaseñor, A. & Álvarez, D. (2011). Contextual variables and time-motion analysis in soccer. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 32(6), 415-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0031-1271771.

Courtney, J. (2002). Sportstec shows the world how to play the game. The PortsScape, 2(1), 16-17.

Coutts, A.J. & Duffield, R. (2010). Validity and reliability of GPS devices for measuring movement demands of team sports. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13(1), 133-135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2008.09.015.

Dabanch, J., Gil, G., Pérez, M. y Rodríguez, A. (2002). Software para el registro de acciones significativas en fútbol. En Actas Congreso científico internacional de fútbol, mayo, Salamanca, España.

De la Vega-Marcos, R., Del Valle-Díaz, S., Maldonado-Rico, A. y Moreno -Hernández, A. (2008). Una nueva herramienta para la comprensión táctica del fútbol. Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte, 8(30),130-145.

Di Salvo, V., Collins, A., Mc Neill, B. & Cardinale, M. (2006) Validation of Prozone®: A new video-based performance analysis system. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 6(1), 108-119.

Di Salvo, V., Barón, R. & Cardinale, M. (2007). Time motion analysis of elite footballers in European cup competitions. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 6 (Suppl. 10), 14-15.

Di Salvo, V., Gregson, W., Atkinson, G., Tordoff, P. & Drust B. (2009). Analysis of high intensity activity in Premier League Soccer. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 30(3), 205-212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0028-1105950.

Duncan, M.J., Badland, H.M. & Mummery, W.K. (2009). Applying GPS to enhance understanding of transport-related physical activity. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 12(5), 549-556. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2008.10.010.

Edgecomb, S.J. & Norton, K.I. (2006). Comparison of global positioning and computer-based tracking systems for measuring player movement distance during Australian football. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 9(1-2), 25-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2006.01.003.

Ekin, A., Tekalp, A.M. & Mehrotra, R. (2003). Automatic soccer video analisis and summarization. IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, 12(7), 796-807. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2003.812758.

Figueroa, P.J., Leite, N.J. & Barros, R.M.L. (2006). Tracking soccer players aiming their kinematical motion analysis. Computer Vision and Image Understanding, 101(2), 122-135.

Gedikli, S., Bandouch, J., Hoyningen-Huene, N., Kirchlechner, B. & Beetz, M. (2007). An adaptive vision system for tracking soccer players from variable camera settings. Trabajo presentado en el Vth International Conference on Computer Vision Systems, mayo, Angers, Francia.

Harley, J.A., Barnes, C.A., Portas, M.D., Lovell, R.J., Barrett, S., Paul, D. y cols. (2010). Motion analysis of match-play in elite U12 to U16 age-group soccer players. Journal of Sports Science, 28(13), 1391-97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2010.510142.

Harley, J.A., Lovell, R.J., Barnes, C.A., Portas, M.D. & Weston, M. (2011). The interchangeability of global positioning system and semiautomated video-based performance data during elite soccer match play. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25(8), 2334-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181f0a88f.

Helgerud, J., Engen, L. C., Wisløff, U. & Hoff, J. (2001). Aerobic endurance training improves soccer performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 33(2), 1925-1931. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200111000-00019.

Hewitt, A., Withers, R. & Lyons, K. (2007). Match analyses of Australian international women soccer players using an athlete tracking device. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 6(Suppl. 10), 107.

Jonsson, G.K. (2004). SOF-CODER: Technological and multimedia system for recording data in soccer. Trabajo presentado en el III Congreso Vasco del Deporte, noviembre, Vitoria, España.

Jonsson, G.K., Blanco-Villaseñor, A., Losada, J.L. y Anguera, M.T. (2004). Avances en la codificación y análisis de eventos deportivos: ilustración empírica en el fútbol. Metodología de las Ciencias del Comportamiento, Volumen Especial, 317-322.

Jonsson, G.K., Anguera, M.T., Blanco-Villaseñor, A., Losada, J.L., Hernández-Mendo, A. y cols. (2006). Hidden patterns of play interaction in soccer using SOF-CODER. Behavior Research Methods, 38(3), 372-381. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03192790.

Krustrup, P., Mohr, M., Ellingsgaard, H. & Bangsbo, J. (2005). Physical demands during an elite female soccer game: Importance of training status. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 37(7), 1242-1248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000170062.73981.94.

Leoand, M., D'Orazio, T., Spagnolo, P. & Distante, A. (2005). Wavelet and ICA preprocessing for ball recognition in soccer images. International Journal on Graphics, Vision and Image Processing, 5(Suppl. 1), 53-59.

Macleod, H., Morris, J., Nevill, A. & Sunderland, C. (2009). The validity of a non-differential global positioning system for assessing player movement patterns in field hockey. Journal of Sports Science, 27(2), 121-128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640410802422181.

Magnusson, M.S. (1996). Hidden real-time patterns in intra- and inter-individual behaviour. European Journal on Psychological Assessment, 12(2), 112-123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759.12.2.112.

Magnusson, M.S. (2000). Discovering hidden time patterns in behaviour: T-patterns and their detection. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments and Computers, 32(1), 93-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03200792.

Miyagi, O., Ohashi, J. & Kitagawa, K. (1999). Motion characteristics of an elite soccer player during a game. Communications to the IVth World Congress of Science and Football. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 17(10), 816.

Mohr, M., Krustrup, P. & Bangsbo, J. (2003). Match performance of top-level soccer players with special reference to development of fatigue. Journal of Sports Sciences, 21(7), 519-528. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0264041031000071182.

Noldus, L., Trienes, R., Hendriksen, A., Jansen, H. & Jansen, R.G. (2000). The Observer Vídeo-Pro: new software for the collection, management, and presentation of time-structured data from videotapes and digital media files. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 32(1), 197-206. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03200802.

Ohashi, J., Miyagi, O., Nagahama, H., Ogushi, T. & Ohashi, K. (2002). Application of an analysis evaluating intermittent activity during a soccer match. En W. Spinks, T. Reilly, T. & A. Murphy (Eds.), Science and Football IV (pp. 133-136). Londres: Routledge, Taylor & Francis.

Perea, A. E. (2008). Análisis de las acciones colectivas en el fútbol rendimiento. Tesis para optar al título de Doctor, Universidad del País Vasco, Álava, España.

Pino, J., Martínez-Santos, R., Moreno, M.I. & Padilla, C. (2007). Automatic analysis of football games using GPS on real time. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 6(Suppl. 10), 9.

Pleština, V., Dujmić, H. & Papić, V. (2009). A modular system for tracking players in sports games. International Journal of Education and Information Technologies, 4(3), 197-204.

Rampinini, E., Coutts, A.J., Castagna, C., Sassi, R. & Impellizzeri, F.M. (2007). Variation in top level soccer match performance. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 28(12), 1018-1024. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-965158.

Rampinini, E., Impellizzeri, F.M., Castagna, C., Coutts, A.J. & Wisløff, U. (2009). Technical performance during soccer matches of the Italian Serie A league: effect of fatigue and competitive level. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 12(1), 227-233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2007.10.002.

Randers, M. B., Jensen, J.M. & Krustrup, P. (2007). Comparison of activity profile during matches in Danish and Swedish Premier League and matches in Nordic Royal League tournament. VIth World Congress on Science and Football. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 6(Suppl. 10), 16.

Randers, M.B., Mujika, I., Hewitt, A., Santisteban, J., Bischoff, R, Solano, R. Y cols. (2010). Application of four different football match analysis systems: A comparative study. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(2), 171-182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640410903428525.

Redwood-Brown, A., Cranton, W. & Sunderland, C. (2012). Validation of a real-time video analysis system for soccer. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 33(8), 635-640. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0032-1306326.

Reilly, T. (2005). An ergonomics model of the soccer training process. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(6), 561-572. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640410400021245.

Reina-Gómez y Hernández-Mendo. (2012). Revisión de indicadores de rendimiento en fútbol. Revista Iberoamericana de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte, 1(1), 1-14.

Ren, J., Orwell, J., Jones, G. & Xu, M. (2004). A General framework for 3D soccer ball estimation and tracking. Trabajo presentado en el IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, octubre, Suntec City, Singapur.

Ren, J., Orwell, J. & Jones, G. A. (2006). Generating ball trajectory in soccer video sequences. Trabajo presentado en el Workshop on Computer Vision Based Analysis in Sport Environments, mayo, Graz, Austria.

Rupf, R., Thomas, S. & Wells, G. (2007). Quantifying energy expenditure of dribbling a soccer ball in a field test. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 6(Suppl. 10), 132.

Schutz, Y. & Herren, R. (2000). Assessment of speed of human locomotion using a differential satellite global positioning system. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 32(3), 642-646. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200003000-00014.

Setterwall, D. (2003). Computerised video analysis of football. Technical and commercial possibilities for football coaching. Tesis para optar al título de Doctor, Universidad de Estocolmo, Estocolmo, Suecia.

Shiokawa, M., Takahashi, A., Kan, A., Usui, K.O.S., Choi, C.S. & Deguchi, T. (2003). Computer analysis of a soccer game by the DLT method focusing on the movement of the players and the ball. Vth World Congress on Science and Football. Book of abstracts (p. 267). Madrid: Gymnos.

Silva, A., Sánchez Bañuelos, F., Garganta, J. y Anguera M.T. (2005). Patrones de juego en el fútbol de alto rendimiento. Análisis secuencial del proceso ofensivo en el campeonato del mundo Corea-Japón 2002. Cultura, Ciencia y Deporte: revista de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte de la Universidad Católica San Antonio, 2(1), 65-72.

Stølen, T., Chamari, K., Castagna, C. & Wisløff, U. (2005). Physiology of soccer. An update. Sports Medicine, 35(6), 501-536. http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200535060-00004.

Terrier, P., Ladetto, Q., Merminod, B. & Schutz, Y. (2001). Measurement of the mechanical power of walking by satellite positioning system (GPS). Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 33(11), 1912 -1918. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200111000-00017.

Terrier, P. & Schutz, Y. (2003). Variability of gait patterns during unconstrained walking assessed by satellite positioning (GPS). European Journal of Applied Physiology, 90(5-6), 554-561. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-003-0906-3

Townshend A.D., Worringham, C.J. & Stewart, I.B. (2008). Assessment of speed and position during human locomotion using nondifferential GPS. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 40(1), 124-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e3181590bc2.

Van Gool, D., van Gerven, D. & Boutmans, J. (1988). The physiological load imposed in soccer players during real match-play. En T. Reilly, A. Lees, K. Davids & W. J. Murphy (Eds.), Science and Football (pp. 51-59). Londres: E. & F.N. Spon.

Vigne, G., Gaudino, C., Rogowski, I., Alloatti, G. & Hautier, C. (2010). Activity profile in elite italian soccer team. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 31(5), 304-310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0030-1248320.

Wan, K., Yan, X., Yu., X. & Xu, C. (2003). Real-time goal-mouth detection in MPEG soccer video. Trabajo presentado en el 11th ACM International Conference on Multimedia, noviembre, Berkeley, CA. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/957013.957079.

Wang, J., Xu, C., Chng, E., Wah, K. & Tian Q. (2004). Automatic replay generation for soccer video broadcasting. Trabajo presentado en el 12th ACM International Conference on Multimedia, octubre, Nueva York, NY. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1027527.1027535.

Weston, M., Drust, B. & Gregson, W. (2011). Intensities of exercise during match-play in FA Premier League referees and players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(5), 527-532. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2010.543914.

Witte, T.H. & Wilson, A.M. (2004). Accuracy of non-differential GPS for the determination of speed over ground. Journal of Biomechanics, 37(12), 1891-1898. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2004.02.031.

Witte, T.H. & Wilson, A.M. (2005). Accuracy of WAAS-enabled GPS for the determination of position and speed over ground. Journal of Biomechanics, 38(8), 1717-1722. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2004.07.028.

Xu, M., Orwell, J., & Jones, G. (2004). Tracking football players with multiple cameras. Trabajo presentado en la International Conference on Image Processing, octubre, Nueva York, NY.

Zubillaga, A. (2006). La actividad del jugador de fútbol en alta competición: análisis de variabilidad. Tesis para optar al título de Doctor,Universidad de Málaga, Málaga, España.

Zubillaga, A., Gorospe, G., Hernández-Mendo, A. & Blanco, A. (2007). Match analysis of 2005-06 Champions League Final with Amisco system. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 6(Suppl. 10), 20.