Núm. 60 (2015)

Influencia de la música en el rendimiento físico, esfuerzo percibido y motivación / Influence of Music on Physical Performance, Perceived Exertion and Motivation. pp. 701-717

Publicado diciembre 17, 2015


El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la influencia motivacional del estilo de música (clásica y tecno) frente a su no utilización sobre el rendimiento y el esfuerzo percibido. Se administró a 24 triatleta que hicieron tres sesiones de 20 minutos, en bicicleta estática. Se establecieron dos grupos experimentales y un grupo control. El grupo control realizó todas las pruebas sin música, el grupo experimental 1 realizó una primera sesión sin música, una segunda con música clásica y una tercera con tecno y, el grupo experimental 2, realizó una primera sesión sin música, una segunda con tecno y una tercera con clásica. Los resultados indicaron que la música seleccionada no influye significativamente en el rendimiento. El éxito atribuido a una melodía y la asociación de la música con una película es una de las cualidades más motivacionales e influye sobre el esfuerzo percibido, siendo menor con música clásica.

PALABRAS CLAVE: Música, esfuerzo percibido, rendimiento físico, motivación.



The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which different types of music (classical or techno), or the absence of music, may affect motivation, performance and perceived effort. 24 triathletes were divided into three groups, one of which served as a control group. Each group underwent three exercise sessions of twenty minutes on the static bicycle. No music was played in any of the control group’s sessions. In the first session for Group 1 no music was played. In the first session for Group 2 no music was played.  In the second session, classical music was played for the participants of Group 1 and techno music was played for the participants of Group 2. In the third and final session, techno music was played for the participants of Group 1 and classical music was played for the participants of Group 2. Results indicate that the choice of music has little effect on performance. It appears that a song’s popularity or its association with a famous film is the most motivational factor and that this affects the participants’ levels of perceived effort, however this effect is less noticeable with classical music.

KEY WORDS: Music, effort perceived, physical performance, motivation


Atkinson, G., Wilson, D. & Eubank, M. (2004). Effects of music on work-rate distribution during a cycling time trial. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 25, 611-615. doi: 10.1055/s-2004-815715

Beisman, A. (1967). Effect of rhythmic accompaniment upon learning of fundamental motor skills. Research Quarterly, 38, 172-176.

Bishop, D. T., Karageorghis, C. I. & Loizou, G. (2007). A grounded theory of young tennis players' use of music to manipulate emotional state. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 29, 584-607.

Borg, G. (1970). Perceived exertion as an indicator of somatic stress. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 2, 92-98.

Borg, G. (1982). Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 14, 377-381. doi: 10.1249/00005768-198205000-00012

Brooks, K. & Brooks, K. (2010). Difference in Wingate power output in response to music as motivation. Journal of Exercise Physiology online, 13(6), 14-20.

Castellanos, R. & Pulido, M. A. (2009). Validez y confiabilidad de la escala de Perceived effort de Borg. Enseñanza e Investigación en Psicología, 14(1), 169-177.

Copeland, B. & Franks, D. (1991) Effects of types and intensities of background music on treadmill endurance. Journal of Sports Medicine & Physical Fitness, 31, 100-103.

Crust, L. (2008). The perceived importance of components of asynchronous music in circuit training exercise. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23, 1-9.

Dillon, E. (1952). A study of the use of music as an aid in teaching swimming. Research Quarterly, 23, 1-8. doi: 10.1080/10671188.1952.10761951

Dowling, W. J. & Harwood, D. L. (1986). Music cognition. New York: Academic Press

Fraisse, P. (1982). Rhythm and tempo. The psychology of music. New York: Academic Press.

Hagen, J. et al. (2013). The effect of music on 10-km cycle time-trial performance. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance,8, 104-106.

Hernández-Peon, R. (1961). The efferent control of afferent signals entering the central nervous system. Annals of New York Academy of Science, 89, 866-882. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1961.tb20183.x

Hevner, K. (1937). The affective value of pitch and tempo in music. American Journal of Psychology, 49, 621-630. doi: 10.2307/1416385

Iwanaga, M. (1995) Relationship between heart rate and preference for tempo of music. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 81, 435-440.doi: 10.2466/pms.1995.81.2.435

Karageorghis, C. I. (2008). The scientific application of music in sport and exercise. En A. M. Lane (Ed.), Sport and Exercise Psychology (pp. 109-137). London: Hodder Education.

Karageorghis, C. I. & Priest, D. (2012). Music in the exercise domain: a review and synthesis (Part I). International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 5(1), 44-66. doi: 10.1080/1750984X.2011.631026

Karageorghis, C. I. & Terry, P. C. (1997). The psychophysical effects of music in sport and Exercise. A review. Journal of Sport Behavior, 20, 54-68.

Karageorghis, C. I., Terry, P. C. y Lane, A. M. (1999). Development and initial validation of an instrument to assess the motivational qualities of music in exercise and sport: The Brunel Music Rating Inventory. Journal of Sports Sciences, 17, 713-724. doi: 10.1080/026404199365579

Kornysheva, K., von Cramon, D. Y., Jacobsen, T. & Schubotz, R. I. (2010). Tuning-in to the beat: Aesthetic appreciation of musical rhythms correlates with a premotor activity boost. Human Brain Mapping, 31, 48-64.

Lucaccini L. F. & Kreit L. H. (1972). Music. En W. P. Morgan (Ed.), Ergogenic aids and muscular performance (pp. 240-245). New York: Academic Press.

MacDougal, R. (1902). The relation of auditory rhythm to nervous discharge. Psychological Review, 15(40), 460-480. doi: 10.1037/h0073901

Molinari, M., Leggio, M. G., De Martin, M., Cerasa, A., & Thaut, M. (2003). Neurobiology of rhythmic motor entrainment. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 999,313-32. doi: 10.1196/annals.1284.042

Priest, D. L. y Karageorghis, C. I. (2008). A qualitative investigation into the characteristics and effects of music accompanying exercise. European Physical Education Review, 14, 347-366. doi: 10.1177/1356336X08095670

Rejeski, W. J. (1985). Perceived exertion: An active or passive process? Journal of Sport Psychology, 75, 371-378.

Rosenfeld, A. H. (1985). Music, the beautiful disturber. Psychology Today, 19, 48-56.

Scherer, K. R. y Zentner, M. R. (2001). Emotional effects of music: Production rules. En P. Juslin & J. A. Sloboda (Eds.), Music and emotion: Theory and research (pp. 361-392). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Schneider, S., Askew, C. D., Abel, T. y Strüder, H. K. (2010). Exercise, music, and the brain: Is there a central pattern generator? Journal of Sports Sciences, 28, 1337-1343. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2010.507252

Sloboda, J. (2008). The ear of the beholder. Nature, 454, 32-33. doi: 10.1038/454032a

Szabo, A., Small, A. & Leigh, M. (1999). The effects of slow and fast-rhythm classical music on progressive cycling to voluntary physical exhaustion. Journal of Sports Medicine & Physical Fitness, 39, 220-225.

Terry, P. C. & Karageorghis, C. I. (2006). Psychophysical effects of music in sport and exercise: An update on theory, research and application. En M. Katsikitis (Ed.), Proceedings of the 2006 Joint Conference of the APS and the NZPS (pp. 415-419). Melbourne, VIC: Australian Psychological Society.

Wilson, F. R. (1986). Tone deaf and all thumbs. New York: Viking Press.

Yanguas, J. (2006). Influència de la MUSIC en el rendiment esportiu. Apunts, medicina de l’ Educació Física i l’ Esport, 41(152), 155-165.