Núm. 60 (2015)
Área 12. APRENDIZAJE MOTOR / MOTOR LEARNING

Efectos de la práctica variable sobre el golpeo a portería en fútbol / Effects of variable practice in soccer goal shot from distance in football. pp. 663-675

Publicado diciembre 17, 2015

Resumen

El trabajo analiza el efecto de la variabilidad de la práctica sobre la precisión y la velocidad del balón en el golpeo a portería en fútbol. Veintisiete futbolistas (20,34±1,5 años de edad, 11,67±2,15 años de experiencia) se dividieron en dos grupos. Todos mejoran su precisión en el pos-test y el test de retención. El grupo de práctica específica es más preciso que el de práctica variable en el pos-test y en el test de retención (p?.05). En la variable velocidad de golpeo, el grupo de práctica variable ha mejorado significativamente (p?.05) en el pos-test y en el test de retención. El grupo de práctica específica ha manifestado una velocidad de golpeo significativamente menor (p?.05) en el pos-test y el test de retención que el pre-test. La velocidad de golpeo ha sido superior en el grupo de práctica variable tanto en el pos-test como en test de retención.

PALABRAS CLAVE: práctica variable, precisión, fútbol, golpeo a portería

 

ABSTRACT

 

This paper analyzes the effect of the variability of practice on the accuracy and speed of the ball in the shot on goal in football. Twenty seven male players (age of 20,34±1,5 years; training experience in football of 11,67±2,15 years) were distributed into two groups, variable practice (N = 13) and specific practice (N = 14). The results showed that both groups improved the accuracy in the post-test and retention test. The group of specific practice achieve more accuracy than variable practice in the post-test and retention test (p ? .05). Regarding the speed of the shots, the group of variable practice improved (p?.05) in the post-test and retention test. The group of specific practice showed a lower speed (p?.05) in the post-test and retention test than the pre-test. The speed of the shots was higher in the variable practice in the post-test and retention test.

KEY WORDS: variable practice, accuracy, football, soccer goal

Citas

Beckman, H. & Schölhorn, W. (2003). Differential learning in shot put. In W.I. Schöllhorn, C., Bohn, J.M., Jäger, H., Schaper, & M. Alichmann (eds.), Mechanics, Physiology, Psychology. Ist European Workshop on Movement Science (pp. 68-69). Köln: Sport and BuchStrauâ.

Bernstein, N. (1967). The co-ordination and regulation of movements. New York: Pergamon Press.

Caballero, C., Luís, V. y Sabido, R. (2012). Efecto de diferentes estrategias de aprendizaje sobre el rendimiento y la cinemática en el lanzamiento del armado clásico en balonmano. Motricidad. European Journal of Human Movement, 28, 83-100.

Davids, K., Bennett, S., & Newell, K. (2006). Movement System Variability. USA: Human Kinetics.

Davids, K., Button, C., & Bennett, S. (2008). Dynamics of Skill Acquisition: A Constraints-led Approach. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics.

Davids, K., Chow, J.Y., & Shuttleworth, R. (2005). A constraints-based framework for nonlinear pedagogy in physical education. Journal of Physical Education New Zealand, 38, 17-29.

Davids, K., Glazier, P., Araujo, D., & Bartlet, R. (2003) Movement systems as dynamical systems: the role of functional variability and its implications for sports medicine. Sports Medicine, 33, 245–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200333040-00001

García, J.A., Moreno, F.J. y Cabero, M.T. (2011). Efectos del entrenamiento en variabilidad sobre la precisión del lanzamiento de siete metros en balonmano. E-Balonmano, 7 (2), 67-77.

García, J.A., Sabido, R., Barbado, D., & Moreno, F.J. (2011). Analysis of the relation between throwing speed and throwing accuracy in team-handball according to instruction. European Journal of Sport Science, 0, 0, 1-6.

Glass, L., & Mackey, M.C. (1988). From clocks to chaos: The rhythms of life. Princeton, New York: Princeton University Press.

Hancock, G. R., Butler, M. S., & Fishman, M. G. (1995) On the problem of two-dimensional error scores: measures and analyses of accuracy, bias, and consistency. Journal of Motor Behavior, 27, 241-250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222895.1995.9941714

Jaitner, T., Kretzschmar, D., & Hellstern, W. (2003). Changes of movement patterns and hurdle performance following traditional and differential hurdle training. In E. Müller, H. Schwameder, G. Zallinger, and V. Fastenbauer, (eds.), 8th Annual Congress of ECSS, Salzburg, 9-12 julio (book of abstracts).

Jaitner, T., & Pfeiffer, M. (2003). Developing jumping strength based on systems dynamics principles. In W. Schölhorn, C. Bohn, J.M., Jäger, H. Schaper, and M. Alichmann, (eds.), European workshop on movement science Mechanics and Physiology, Colonia, 31 mayo-2 junio (book of abstracts).

Kelso, J.A.S. y Ding, M. (1993). Fluctuations, intermittency, and controllable chaos in biological coordination. In K.M. Newell, and D.M. Corcos (eds.), Variability and Motor Control (291-316). Campaign IL: Human Kinetics.

Menayo, R. (2010). Análisis de la relación entre la consistencia en la ejecución del patrón motor del servicio en tenis, la precisión y su aprendizaje en condiciones de variabilidad. (Tesis Doctoral). Servicio de Publicaciones. Universidad de Extremadura. Cáceres.

Menayo, R., Moreno, F.J., Fuentes, J.P., Reina, R. & García, J.A. (2010). Relación entre variabilidad de la práctica y variabilidad en la ejecución del servicio plano en tenis. Motricidad, European Journal of Human Movement, 25, 1-21.

Menayo, R., Moreno, F.J., Fuentes, J.P., Reina, R., & Damas, J.S. (2012). Relationship between motor variability, accuracy, and ball speed in the tennis serve. Journal of Human Kinetics, 33, 45-53.

Miller, S.A. (2002). Variability in basketball shooting: practical implications. In Y. Hong, (ed.), International Research in Sports Biomechanics (27-34). London: Routledge.

Moreno, F.J., Reina, R., Luis, V., Damas, J.S. & Sabido, R. (2003). Desarrollo de un sistema tecnológico para el registro del comportamiento de jugadores de tenis y tenis en silla de ruedas en situaciones de respuesta de reacción. Motricidad. European Journal of Human Movement, 10, 165-190.

Newell, K.M., & Corcos, D.M. (1993). Issues in variability and motor control. In K.M. Newell, and D.M. Corcos (eds.), Variability and Motor Control (1-12). Champaign IL: Human Kinetics.

Newell, K.M., & Slifkin, A.B. (1998).The nature of movement variability. In J.P. Piek (ed.), Motor Behaviour and Human Skill (143-160). Campaign IL: Human Kinetics.

Rein, R., & Simon, C. (2003). Influence of technique variation training on technique variability in long distance running. In N. Balagué (ed.), Proceedings of the 1st Meeting of Complex Systems and Sports, Barcelona, 14-17 de mayo (book of abstracts).

Savelsbergh, G., Canal-Bruland, R., & van der Kamp, J. (2012). Error Reduction During Practice: A Novel Method for Learning to Kick Free-Kicks in Soccer. International Journal of Sport Science & Coaching, 7(1), 47-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1260/1747-9541.7.1.47

Sabido, R., Caballero, C. & Moreno, F.J. (2009). Análisis de la variabilidad entre diferentes situaciones en el lanzamiento de tres puntos en baloncesto. RICYDE. Revista Internacional de Ciencias del Deporte, 17(5), 76-87. http://dx.doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2009.01706

Shahrzad, N., Bahram, A., & Shafizadeh, M. (2010).The Effect of Variability of Practice and Age on Retention and Transfer of the Overarm Throwing Accuracy in Children. Proceedings of the 21st Pan-Asian Congress of Sports and Physical Education, Theory and practice of competitive sports, Nanchang (China), 23-25 de abril (book of abstracts).

Stergiou, N., Buzzi, U.H., Kurz, M.J., & Heidel, J. (2004). Nonlinear Tools in Human Movement. In Stergiou, N. (ed.), Innovative Analyses for Human Movement. Champaign, Ill: Human Kinetics.

Schöllhorn, W.I., Mayer-Kress, G., Newell, K.M., & Michelbrink, M. (2009). Time scales of adaptative behavior and motor learning in the presence of stochastic perturbations. Human Movement Science, 28, 319-333. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2008.10.005

Schölhorn, W.I., Röber, F., Jaitner, T., Hellstern, W., & Käubler, W. (2001).Discrete and continuous effects of traditional and differential sprint training. 6th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Sciences, Colonia, 24-28 de julio (book of abstracts).

Scholz, J.P., & Schöner, G. (1999). The uncontrolled manifold concept: Identifying control variables for a functional task. Experimental Brain Research, 126, 289-306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002210050738

Schönherr, T., & Schölhorn, W. (2003). Differential learning in basketball. In W. Schölhorn, C. Bohn, J.M. Jäger, H. Schaper, and M. Alichmann (eds.), European Workshop on Movement Science, Mechanics, and Physiology, Müster (Alemania), 22-24 de mayo (book of abstracts).

Trockel, M., & Schölhorn, W. (2003). Differential training in soccer. In W. Schölhorn, C. Bohn, J.M. Jäger, H. Schaper, and M. Alichmann (eds.), European workshop on movement science Mechanics and Physiology, Müster (Alemania), 22-24 de mayo (book of abstracts).

Van Emmerik, R.E.A., & van Wegen, E.E.H. (2000). On variability and stability in human movement.Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 16, 394-406.

Van den Tillar, R., & Ettema, G. (2003). Instructions emphasizing, velocity, accuracy, or both in performance and kinematics of overarm throwing by experienced team handball players. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 97, 731-742. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pms.2003.97.3.731

Wagner, H., & Müller, E. (2008). The effects of differential and variable training on the qualityparameters of a handball throw. Sport Biomechanics, 7 (1), 54-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14763140701689822

Wagner, H., Müller, E., Kösters, A., Von Tscharner, V., & Brunner, F. (2003). Optimization of complex movement patterns (handball throw) motor development and the variation of kinematic and EMG parameters. In E. Müller, H. Schwameder, G. Zallinger, and V. Fastenbauer (eds.), 8th Annual Congress of the ECSS, Salzburg, 9-12 de Julio (book of abstracts).

Wallace, S. (1997). Dynamic Pattern Perspective of Rhythmic Movement: A Tutorial. In H.N. Zelaznik, (ed.), Advances in Motor Learning and Control (155-193). Illinois: Human Kinetics.

Zanone, P.G., & Kelso, J.A.S. (1992). Learning and transfer as dynamical paradigms for behavioral change. In G.E. Stelmach, and J. Requin (eds.), Tutorials in Motor Behaviour, II (563-582). Amsterdam: North-Holland.