Vol. 1 Núm. 12 (2022): Miscelánea
Artículos

Vulnerabilidades y fortalezas de las y los adolescentes mexicanos lesbianas y homosexuales ante la violencia en el noviazgo.

Irene Casique Rodríguez
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
Publicado septiembre 26, 2022

Palabras clave:

Violencia en el noviazgo, Adolescentes, diversidad sexual, empoderamiento de los adolescentes, México
Cómo citar
Casique Rodríguez, I. (2022). Vulnerabilidades y fortalezas de las y los adolescentes mexicanos lesbianas y homosexuales ante la violencia en el noviazgo. Journal of Feminist, Gender and Women Studies, 1(12), 81–99. https://doi.org/10.15366/jfgws2021.12.005

Resumen

Este trabajo explora la violencia en el noviazgo entre parejas adolescentes del mismo sexo y compara la prevalencia de las diferentes expresiones de esta violencia (emocional, física y sexual) entre parejas heterosexuales y parejas del mismo sexo. Además, identificamos aquellas características de los adolescentes homosexuales que reducen o aumentan su vulnerabilidad a la violencia en el noviazgo, examinando el papel que juegan diversos elementos de empoderamiento, como la autoestima, la agencia, las actitudes de rol de género, el poder social y el poder sexual de los adolescentes. Se desarrollaron análisis descriptivos, así como modelos de regresión logística bivariados y multivariados, utilizando datos de la Encuesta de Noviazgo, Empoderamiento y Salud Sexual y Reproductiva en Adolescentes de la Escuela Secundaria en México (ENESSAEP 2014), una encuesta representativa de tres estados de la República Mexicana: Morelos, Jalisco y Puebla.

Los hallazgos confirman que las prevalencias de los tres tipos de violencia en el noviazgo (emocional, física y sexual) son significativamente más altas para los adolescentes con parejas del mismo sexo que para los adolescentes heterosexuales. Las experiencias de violencia emocional recibidas y presenciadas en el hogar son más frecuentes en la vida de los adolescentes gays y lesbianas, y estas experiencias a su vez muestran asociaciones significativas y mayores con el riesgo de los tres tipos de violencia en el noviazgo para ellos. A excepción del empoderamiento sexual, la mayoría de los indicadores de empoderamiento mostraron asociaciones significativas y negativas con el riesgo de los tres tipos de violencia en el noviazgo para los adolescentes heterosexuales, y en algunos casos también para los jóvenes gays o lesbianas. Es necesario seguir investigando sobre el papel del empoderamiento de los adolescentes como un proceso relevante para prevenir la violencia en el noviazgo y para proporcionar a los jóvenes recursos clave para identificar y afrontar las relaciones violentas, y particularmente en el caso de los jóvenes de los grupos de diversidad sexual.

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