Núm. 33 (2022): Turquía: repertorios de cooperación y conflicto en el Mediterráneo oriental y la región MENA
Monográfico

Repertorios de prácticas en la política turca hacia el conflicto de Libia y la intervención militar de 2020

Alfonso Casani
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
Biografía
Irene Fernández-Molina
University of Exeter
Biografía
Portada del número 33 de la REIM
Publicado diciembre 19, 2022

Palabras clave:

Libia, Turquía, Guerra Civil, Repertorio de prácticas, Intervención militar
Cómo citar
Casani , A., & Fernández-Molina, I. (2022). Repertorios de prácticas en la política turca hacia el conflicto de Libia y la intervención militar de 2020. Revista De Estudios Internacionales Mediterráneos, (33), 87–113. https://doi.org/10.15366/reim2022.33.004

Resumen

Este artículo estudia la interacción del gobierno de Turquía con los distintos actores libios que han proliferado en el país desde los levantamientos antiautoritarios de 2011, atendiendo al repertorio de prácticas desplegado por Turquía entre 2011 y 2021. Para ello, analiza tres episodios contenciosos, correspondientes al estallido de la guerra civil en 2011, en 2014-2015, y la reanudación del conflicto en 2019-2020. El artículo identifica una intensificación del papel de Turquía en el conflicto libio, cuyo repertorio de prácticas oscila entre la colaboración y rivalidad en un “juego de suma cero” entre actores libios enfrentados en un proceso de guerra civil.

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Citas

A NEWS (2020): “Turkey’s Erdogan Says They Will Teach Lesson to Haftar if Attacks Resume”, 14 de enero de 2020, disponible en https://www.anews.com.tr/world/2020/01/14/turkeys-erdogan-says-they-will-teach-lesson-to-haftar-if-attacks-resume [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

ABO REZEG, Ali H. M. (2020) “UAE Embassy in Moscow Obstructed Libya Cease-fire”, Anadolu Agency, 15 de enero de 2020, disponible en https://www.aa.com.tr/en/middle-east/uae-embassy-in-moscow-obstructed-libya-cease-fire/1703346 [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

ADLER, Emanuel y POULIOT, Vincent (eds.) (2011): International Practices, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE (2011a): “Libya Rebels Take Diplomatic Push to Turkey, Russia”, 23 de mayo de 2011 [Nexis].

AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE (2011b): “Turkey Recognizes Libyan Rebel Council”, 3 de julio de 2011, disponible en http://www.nowlebanon.com/NewsArticleDetails.aspx?ID=288086 [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE (2014): “Turkey Envoy Meets Libya’s Rival Leader”, 22 de octubre de 2014 [Nexis].

AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE (2020a): “Turkey Criticizes EU’s Operation Irini to Contain Arms Shipments to Libya”, 19 de junio de 2020, disponible en https://english.alarabiya.net/News/world/2020/06/19/Turkey-criticizes-EU-Operation-Irini-to-contain-arms-shipments-to-Libya [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE (2020b): “Turkey Says Haftar Forces Need to Pull Out from Key City for Libya Ceasefire”, 20 de junio de 2020, disponible en https://www.france24.com/en/20200620-turkey-says-haftar-forces-need-to-pull-out-from-key-city-for-libya-ceasefire [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE (2020c): “Haftar Says Libya ‘Will Never Accept Turkish Colonialism’ in Address to LNA Battalion”, 2 de agosto de 2020, disponible en https://english.alarabiya.net/News/north-africa/2020/08/02/Haftar-says-Libya-will-never-accept-Turkish-colonialism-in-address-to-LNA-battalion [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

AKKOYUNLU, Karabekir (2021): “The Five Phases of Turkey’s Foreign Policy under the AKP”, Social Research: An International Quarterly, vol. 88, nº 2, verano de 2021, pp. 243-270.

AL ARABIYA ENGLISH (2020a): “Arab Parliament Condemns Turkey Sending Troops to Libya”, 15 de enero de 2020, disponible en https://english.alarabiya.net/News/north-africa/2020/01/15/Arab-Parliament-condemns-Turkey-sending-troops-to-Libya [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

AL ARABIYA ENGLISH (2020b): “Turkey Signs a Military Agreement with Libya’s GNA: Sources”, 4 de julio de 2020, disponible en https://english.alarabiya.net/News/north-africa/2020/07/04/Turkey-signs-a-military-agreement-with-Libya-s-GNA-Sources [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

ANDERSON, Lisa (2017): “‘They Defeated Us All’: International Interests, Local Politics, and Contested Sovereignty in Libya”, Middle East Journal, vol. 71, nº 2, pp. 229-247. https://doi.org/10.3751/71.2.13

ANSA (2014): “Libya: Premier al Thani in Malta, Meets Turkish Envoy; Emrullah Islar Expected to Travel to Misrata Today”, 21 de octubre de 2014 [Nexis].

ANSAMED (2013): “Cooperation: Turkey and Libya Agree to Sign Deals, Minister”, 13 de febrero de 2013 [Nexis].

ASHARQ ALAWSAT (2016): “Turkey Mediates for Solution in Libya”, 12 de enero de 2016 [Nexis].

ASSOCIATED PRESS (2011a): “Turkey Proposes Roadmap for Peace in Libya”, 7 de abril de 2011 [Nexis].

ASSOCIATED PRESS (2011b): “Diplomats Draw Up Plans for Post-Gadhafi Libya”, 24 de junio de 2011 [Nexis].

AYATA, Bilgin (2015): “Turkish Foreign Policy in a Changing Arab World: Rise and Fall of a Regional Actor?”, Journal of European Integration, vol. 37, nº 1, pp. 95-112. https://doi.org/10.1080/07036337.2014.975991

AYDIN-DÜZGIT, Senem y DANDASHLY, Assem (2021): “A Model No More? Debating Turkish Influence in the Southern Neighbourhood”, Democratization, vol. 29, nº 3, pp. 451-468. https://doi.org/10.1080/13510347.2021.1906656

BADI, Emadeddin (2019): “Libya’s Way of the Many”, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 17 de diciembre de 2019, disponible en https://carnegieendowment.org/sada/80628 [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

BARTU, Peter (2014): “Libya’s Political Transition: The Challenges of Mediation”, International Peace Institute, 1 de diciembre de 2014, disponible en https://www.ipinst.org/2014/12/new-ipi-report-explores-the-challenges-of-mediation-in-libyas-political-transition [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

BARTU, Peter (2015): “The Corridor of Uncertainty: The National Transitional Council’s Battle for Legitimacy and Recognition”, en COLE, Peter y McQUINN, Brian (eds.): The Libyan Revolution and its Aftermath, Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 31-54. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780190210960.003.0003

BBC (2011): “Libya’s New Rulers Declare Country Liberated”, 23 de octubre de 2011, disponible en https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15422262 [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

BBC MONITORING EUROPE (2012): “Turkish President Praises Ties with Libya”, 7 de diciembre de 2012 [Nexis].

BBC MONITORING EUROPE (2013): “Energy Minister Views Turkey’s Oil Exploration, Production Activities in Libya”, 7 de enero de 2013 [Nexis].

BBC MONITORING EUROPE (2014): “Turkey, Libya Intend to Intensify Energy Cooperation”, 4 de enero de 2014 [Nexis].

BAKIR, Ali (2020): “The UAE’s Disruptive Policy in Libya”, Insight Turkey, vol. 22, nº 4, pp. 157-178. https://doi.org/10.25253/99.2020224.10

BASKAN, Birol (2019): “Turkey between Qatar and Saudi Arabia: Changing Regional and Bilateral Relations”, Uluslararasi Iliskiler, Vol. 16, No. 62, pp. 85-99, https://doi.org/10.33458/uidergisi.588947

BENSAAD, Ali (2019): “Libye. À Tripoli, des milices plus faibles qu’il n’y parait”, Orient XXI, 18 de febrero de 2019, disponible en https://orientxxi.info/magazine/libye-a-tripoli-des-milices-plus-faibles-qu-il-n-y-parait,2908 [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

BOSSE, Giselle (2011): “From ‘Villains’ to the New Guardians of Security in Europe? Paradigm Shifts in EU Foreign Policy towards Libya and Belarus”, Perspectives on European Politics and Society, vol. 12, nº 4, pp. 440-461. https://doi.org/10.1080/15705854.2011.622960

BOURBEAU, Philippe (2017): “The Practice Approach in International Relations”, Journal of Global Security Studies, vol. 2, nº 2, pp. 170-182. https://doi.org/10.1093/jogss/ogx001

BOURDIEU, Pierre (1977): Outline of a Theory of Practice, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511812507

BUEGER, Christian y GADINGER, Frank (2015): “The Play of International Practice”, International Studies Quarterly, vol. 59, nº 3, pp. 449-460. https://doi.org/10.1111/isqu.12202

CENTRAL BANK OF THE REPUBLIC OF TURKEY (2020): “A Memorandum of Understanding was Signed between the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey and the Central Bank of Libya”, 31 de agosto de 2020, disponible en https://www.tcmb.gov.tr/wps/wcm/connect/EN/TCMB+EN/Main+Menu/Announcements/Press+Releases/2020/ANO2020-55 [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

CIULLA, Mathilde, MEGERISI, Tarek, VARVELLI, Arturo y WILDANGEL, René (2020): “Views from the Capitals: The Libya Conference in Berlin”, European Council on Foreign Relations, 23 de enero de 2020, disponible en https://ecfr.eu/article/vfc_views_from_the_capitals_the_libya_conference_in_berlin/ [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

COGGINS, Bridget L. (2015): “Rebel Diplomacy: Theorizing Violent Non-State Actors’ Strategic Use of Talk”, en ARJONA, Ana, KASFIR, Nelson y MAMPILLY, Zachariah (eds.): Rebel Governance in Civil War, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp. 98-118. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781316182468.005

CONSTANTINI, Irene (2018): Statebuilding in the Middle East and North Africa: The Aftermath of Regime Change, Londres/Nueva York, Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781351121354

DALAY, Galip (2021): “Turkey’s Libya Policy: New Flexibility, New Goals”, Italian Institute for International Political Studies, 27 de mayo de 2021, disponible en https://www.ispionline.it/en/pubblicazione/turkeys-libya-policy-new-flexibility-new-goals-30609 [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

DEUTSCHE PRESSE-AGENTUR (2011): “Turkey Recognizes Libyan Rebels”, 23 de mayo de 2011, disponible en https://web.archive.org/web/20110527173346/http://www.monstersandcritics.com/news/europe/news/article_1640934.php/Turkey-recognizes-Libyan-rebels.

FELTMAN, Jeffrey (2020): “The Berlin Conference on Libya: Will Hypocrisy Undermine Results?”, Brookings, 21 de enero de 2020, disponible en https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2020/01/21/the-berlin-conference-on-libya-will-hypocrisy-undermine-results/ [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

FURNESS, Mark y TRAUTNER, Bernhard (2020): “Reconstituting Social Contracts in Conflict-affected MENA Countries: Whither Iraq and Libya?”, World Development, vol. 135, pp. 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2020.105085

HUANG, Reyko (2016): “Rebel Diplomacy in Civil War”, International Security, vol. 40, nº 4, pp. 89-126. https://doi.org/10.1162/ISEC_a_00237

INTELLINEWS (2012): “Turkey Signs Oil Agreement with Libya, in Talks with S. Arabia”, 13 de junio de 2012 [Nexis].

INTERNATIONAL CRISIS GROUP (2020): “Turkey Wades into Libya's Troubled Waters”, Europe Report nº 257, 20 de abril de 2020, disponible en https://www.crisisgroup.org/europe-central-asia/western-europemediterranean/turkey/257-turkey-wades-libyas-troubled-waters [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

JOFFÉ, George (2016): “The Impact of the War on Libya”, en HENRIKSEN, Dag y LARSSEN, Ann Karin (eds.): Political Rationale and International Consequences of the War in Libya, Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 286-304. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198767480.003.0016

JONES, Benjamin T. y MATTIACCI, Eleonora (2019): “A Manifesto, in 140 Characters or Fewer: Social Media as a Tool of Rebel Diplomacy”, British Journal of Political Science, vol. 49, nº 2, pp. 739-761. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007123416000612

KEK?LL?, Emrah y ÖZTÜRK, Bilgehan (2020) “Turkey’s Position in the Libyan Crisis”, Insight Turkey, vol. 22, nº 2, pp. 53-62. https://doi.org/10.25253/99.2020222.04

LACHER, Wolfram (2018): “Libya: The Gamble That Failed”, en ASSEBURG, Muriel, LACHER, Wolfram y TRANSFELD, Mareike (eds.): Mission Impossible? UN Mediation in Libya, Syria and Yemen, Berlin, Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik, pp. 15-27. https://doi.org/10.5040/9780755600847

LACHER, Wolfram (2019a): “Who Is Fighting Whom in Tripoli?: The 2019 Civil War is Transforming Libya’s Military Landscape”, Small Arms Survey, Briefing Paper, agosto de 2019, disponible en http://www.jstor.com/stable/resrep20042 [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

LACHER, Wolfram (2019b): “International Schemes, Libyan Realities”, Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik, SWP Comment 2019/C 45, 25 de noviembre de 2019, disponible en https://www.swp-berlin.org/10.18449/2019C45/ [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

LACHER, Wolfram (2020): Libya’s Fragmentation: Structure and Process in Violent Conflict, Londres, I.B. Tauris.

LAESSING, Ulf (2020): Understanding Libya since Gaddafi, London, Hurst.

LAPO, Amanda y PROFAZIO, Umberto (2020): “Yet More Failed Diplomacy in Libya”, International Institute for Strategic Studies, 13 de febrero de 2020, disponible en https://www.iiss.org/blogs/analysis/2020/02/failed-diplomacy-in-libya [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

McADAM, Doug, McCARTHY, John D. y ZALD, Mayer N. (eds.) (1999): Movimientos sociales: Perspectivas comparadas. Oportunidades políticas, estructuras de movilización y marcos interpretativos culturales, Madrid, Istmo.

McADAM, Doug, TARROW, Sidney y TILLY, Charles (1991): Dynamics of Contention, New York, Cambridge University Press.

MEGERISI, Tarek (2019): “Libya’s Global Civil War”, European Council on Foreign Relations, 26 de julio de 2019, disponible en https://ecfr.eu/publication/libyas_global_civil_war1/ [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

MEGERISI, Tarek (2020): “It’s Turkey’s Libya Now”, European Council on Foreign Relations, 20 de mayo de 2020, disponible en https://ecfr.eu/article/commentary_its_turkeys_libya_now/ [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

MIDDLE EAST INSTITUTE (2011): “Erdogan's Arab Spring Tour”, Middle East Institute, 21 de septiembre de 2021, disponible en https://www.mei.edu/publications/erdogans-arab-spring-tour [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

MUNDY, Jacob (2018): Libya, Cambridge, Polity Press.

OFFICE OF THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS/OHCHR (2020): “Libya: Violations Related to Mercenary Activities Must Be Investigated – UN Experts”, 17 de junio de 2020, disponible en https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=25970 [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

ÖNIS, Ziya (2014): “Turkey and the Arab Revolutions: Boundaries of Regional Power Influence in a Turbulent Middle East”, Mediterranean Politics, vol. 19, nº 2, pp. 203-219, https://doi.org/10.1080/13629395.2013.868392

PACK, Jason (2021): Libya and the Global Enduring Disorder, Oxford, Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780197631317.001.0001

PANAPRESS (2014): “Libya: ‘Elections, the Only Means to Establish Democracy’”, 4 de noviembre de 2014 [Nexis].

POLAT, Ferhat (2019): “The Trajectory of Turkey-Libya Relations”, TRT World, 30 de agosto de 2019, disponible en https://www.trtworld.com/opinion/the-trajectory-of-turkey-libya-relations-29413 [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

POULIOT, Vincent (2008): “The Logic of Practicality: A Theory of Practice of Security Communities”, International Organization, vol. 62, nº 2, pp. 257-288. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020818308080090

PRESIDENCY OF THE REPUBLIC OF TURKEY (2019): “Today’s Turkey Looks to the Future with Much Greater Hope and Confidence”, 31 de diciembre de 2019, disponible en https://www.tccb.gov.tr/en/news/542/114146/-today-s-turkey-looks-to-the-future-with-much-greater-hope-and-confidence- [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

RAMANI, Samuel (2021): “Turkey’s Evolving Strategy in Libya: A Winning Gambit for Erdo?an?”, Confluences Méditerranée, nº 118, pp. 49-64. https://doi.org/10.3917/come.118.0051.

REUTERS (2017): “Turkey Reopens Embassy in Libya, Vows to Support Unity Efforts”, 30 de enero de 2017, disponible en https://www.reuters.com/article/uk-libya-turkey-diplomacy-idUKKBN15E0TL [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

REUTERS (2020): “Turkey Aims to Sign Deal with Libya over Gaddafi-Era Compensation”, 10 de enero de 2020, disponible en https://www.reuters.com/article/us-libya-security-turkey-idUSKBN1Z913A [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

ROWE, Elana Wilson (2020): “Analyzing Frenemies: An Arctic Repertoire of Cooperation and Rivalry”, Political Geography, vol. 76, pp. 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polgeo.2019.102072

SAHIN, Tuba (2020): “Turkey, Libya Ink Deal to Boost Trade, Economic Ties”, Anadolu Agency, 13 de agosto de 2020, disponible en https://www.aa.com.tr/en/africa/turkey-libya-ink-deal-to-boost-trade-economic-ties/1940261 [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

TALMON, Stefan (2011): “Recognition of the Libyan National Transitional Council”, ASIL Insights, vol. 15, nº 16.

TARROW, Sidney (2004): El poder en movimiento: Los movimientos sociales, la acción colectiva y la política (2ª ed.), Madrid, Alianza.

TEKIR, Gökhan (2020): “Russian-Turkish Involvement in the Civil War in Libya”, Türkiye Rusya Ara?t?rmalar? Dergisi, nº 3, pp. 190-215.

TELCI, Ismail Numan (2022) “Turkey’s Libya Policy: Achievements and Challenges”, Insight Turkey, vol. 22, nº 4, pp. 41-54. https://doi.org/10.25253/99.2020224.03

TREND DAILY NEWS (2012): “Erdogan Pledges Turkey’s Support to Libya in Transition”, 27 de febrero de 2012 [Nexis].

UN SECURITY COUNCIL (2015): “Final Report of the Panel of Experts Established Pursuant to Resolution 1973 (2011)”, S/2015/128, 23 de febrero de 2015, disponible en http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_2015_128.pdf [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

UN SECURITY COUNCIL (2016): “Final Report of the Panel of Experts Established Pursuant to Resolution 1973 (2011)”, S/2016/209, 9 de marzo de 2016, disponible en http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_2016_209.pdf [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

UN SUPPORT MISSION IN LIBYA (2015): “Ministerial Meeting for Libya, December 13, 2015 – Rome, Italy: Joint Communique”, 13 de diciembre de 2015, disponible en https://unsmil.unmissions.org/ministerial-meeting-libya-december-13-2015-%E2%80%93-rome-italy [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

UNITED NEWS OF INDIA (2015): “Security-Lead Libya Two Last Tripoli”, 16 de enero de 2015 [Nexis].

VAN GENUGTEN, Saskia (2016): Libya in Western Foreign Policies, 1911-2011, London, Palgrave Macmillan.

VANDEWALLE, Dirk J. (2012): A History of Modern Libya (2ª ed.), Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139094580

VOHRA, Anchal (2020): “It’s Syrian vs Syrian in Libya”, Foreign Policy, 5 de mayo de 2020, disponible en https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/05/05/libya-civil-conflict-syrian-mercenaries-turkey-russia-gna-haftar/ [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

WEHREY, Frederic (2018): The Burning Shores: Inside the Battle for the New Libya, Nueva York, Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

WEHREY, Frederic (2019): “With the Help of Russian Fighters, Libya’s Haftar Could Take Tripoli”, Foreign Policy, 5 de diciembre de 2019, disponible en https://foreignpolicy.com/2019/12/05/libya-khalifa-haftar-take-tripoli-russian-fighters-help/ [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

WEHREY, Frederic (2020): This War Is Out of Our Hands: The Internationalization Of Libya’s Post-2011 Conflicts from Proxies to Boots on the Ground, New America, 14 de septiembre de 2020, disponible en https://www.newamerica.org/international-security/reports/this-war-is-out-of-our-hands/ [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].

XINHUA GENERAL NEWS SERVICE (2015): “Turkish Consulate in Libya’s Misrata Closed after Grenade Attack”, 28 de septiembre de 2015 [Nexis].

YOUNG, Michael (2020): “Into de Libya Vortex”, Carnegie Middle East Center, 14 de enero de 2020, disponible en https://carnegie-mec.org/diwan/80776 [consulta: 3 de febrero de 2022].