APPROACHES TO STUDY EDUCATIONAL AND OCCUPATIONAL TRAJECTORIES AND OUTCOMES
This article analyzes the main approaches to study educational and occupational outcomes and trajectories. Young people have to decide when and what to study, later on, where to work. Their life levels will depend on those decisions, but the different ways that in both areas they are able to take and their outcomes in education and in the labor market depend on various factors. Among explications it is possible to identify six large approaches: human capital from economics, cultural and social capital from sociology, the socioeconomic status or familiar background approach and the educational and psychological approaches. These approaches are not contrary necessarily, they can be complementary, and their explanatory power depends on place and time, however, the literature does not have an effort to present together their contributions, methodologies and empirical results. This work seeks to remedy that situation and to point out some methodological and empirical weakness.
Keywords: Education – Labor – Trajectories - Human capital - Cultural capital - Social capital - Family background – Clusters - Longitudinal studies.
Este artículo analiza los principales enfoques para estudiar las trayectorias y resultados educacionales y laborales. Los jóvenes deben decidir cuándo y qué estudiar, y posteriormente en dónde trabajar. Su nivel de vida dependerá de esas decisiones, pero los distintos caminos que en ambos campos pueden tomar y los resultados en su educación y en el mercado laboral dependen de varios factores. Dentro de las explicaciones se pueden identificar seis grandes enfoques: el capital humano desde la economía, el capital cultural y social desde la sociología, el enfoque del status socioeconómico o de antecedentes familiares, y los enfoques educativo y psicológico. Estos enfoques no necesariamente son opuestos, más bien son complementarios, y su poder explicativo depende del lugar y el tiempo, sin embargo, en la literatura no existe un esfuerzo por presentar de manera conjunta sus aportaciones, metodologías y resultados empíricos. Este trabajo busca remediar esa situación y señalar algunas debilidades metodológicas y empíricas.
Palabras clave: Educación – Trabajo – Trayectorias - Capital humano - Capital cultural - Capital social - Antecedentes familiares – Clústeres - Estudios longitudinales.
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