La acción constructiva y la reivindicación de los comunes como un mecanismo de descolonización de la resistencia no-violenta | Constructive work and reclaiming the commons as decolonizing nonviolent resistance

Sean CHABOT

Resumen


Los investigadores de la resistencia no-violenta se han concentrado, casi exclusivamente, en el estudio de la acción oposicional contra las fuerzas opresivas. Con ello, han dedicado menor atención a las dimensiones positivas de la resistencia, que permiten a los practicantes generar relaciones sociales y formas alternativas de vida. Como resultado, los estudios sobre la resistencia no-violenta tienden a dar por sentado “el modelo del mundo del colonizador”. Este artículo cuestiona esta lectura predominante, recurriendo a Gandhi, por una parte, y a la literatura autonomista marxista y anarquista, por otra, para explorar formas descolonizadoras de resistencia no-violenta. A través del mismo, se argumenta que el programa constructivo de Gandhi y el pensamiento marxista autonomista de la reivindicación de los comunes ofrecen herramientas relevantes para investigaciones innovadoras sobre la descolonización de la resistencia no-violenta. Además, se señala que el movimiento zapatista y las mujeres zapatistas revolucionarias se encuentran a la vanguardia de los experimentos de trabajo constructivo y de comunes autónomos en el mundo de hoy. Este artículo propone demostrar a académicos y activistas que la no-violencia revolucionaria por la dignidad y el autogobierno sigue siendo posible.

 

Scholars of nonviolent resistance, in particular, almost exclusively focus on oppositional action against oppressive forces. They pay much less attention to positive dimensions of resistance that allow practitioners to create alternative social relationships and ways of life. As a result, studies on nonviolent resistance tend to take “the colonizer’s model of the world” for granted. This article contest the prevailing approach by drawing on Gandhi, on the one hand, and autonomist Marxist and anarchist literature, on the other, to explore decolonizing forms of nonviolent resistance. It argues that Gandhi’s “constructive program” and autonomist Marxist thought on “reclaiming the commons” offer tools that are relevant for innovative research on decolonizing nonviolent resistance. And it shows that the Zapatista movement and revolutionary Zapatista women are on the frontlines of experiments with constructive work and autonomous commons in the world today. They demonstrate to scholars as well as activists that revolutionary nonviolence for dignity and self-rule remains possible.


Palabras clave


Descolonización; resistencia no-violenta; programa constructivo; comunes; no-violencia revolucionaria; Decolonizing; nonviolent resistance; constructive program; the commons; revolutionary nonviolence

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15366/relacionesinternacionales2018.39.002

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