¿Cooptación o resistencia? Problematizando las estrategias legales y derechos de los movimientos sociales en el dominio socio-económico | Co-optation or resistance? Problematizing legal strategies and rights for social movements [...]

Alberto FIERRO

Resumen


Este artículo elabora un marco analítico para problematizar las estrategias legales y de derechos de los movimientos sociales. En la literatura especializada, los académicos han argumentado que los tribunales tienen un efecto individualizador sobre las luchas colectivas, o que los derechos (humanos) constituyen sujetos neoliberales. Sin embargo, es posible abrir esta comprensión teórica a complejidades adicionales: la inclusión de movimientos en ciertas gubernamentalidades puede tener efectos positivos en su lucha. La discusión sigue dos ejes argumentativos principales: en primer lugar, usando herramientas legales y lenguajes de derechos, los movimientos sociales están posiblemente desplegando estrategias de ‘contra-conducta’. Precisamente porque la ley es parte integrante de las gubernamentalidades neoliberales, pueden constituir un elemento estratégico para redirigir y subvertir las relaciones de poder establecidas. En segundo lugar, los derechos en el ámbito socio-económico (por ejemplo, al trabajo, a una vivienda y a la tierra) tienen propiedades específicas que actúan en contra del neoliberalismo económico. Siguiendo el argumento polanyiano clásico, la idea de los derechos socio-económicos aleja estos bienes del dominio del mercado. Esto genera dificultades al sistema económico capitalista, que se apoya en una concepción estricta de la tierra y vivienda como mercancías.

 

This paper elaborates an analytical template to problematize the politics of legal strategies and rights. In the literature, scholars have been arguing that courts have an individualizing effect on collective struggles, or that (human) rights constitute neoliberal subjects. Yet, it is possible to open this theoretical understanding to further complexities: the inclusion of movements into certain governmentalities may have positive effects for their struggle. The discussion follows two main argumentative axes: first, social movements using legal tools and rights language are possibly deploying strategies of ‘counter-conducts’: exactly because the law is part and parcel of neoliberal governmentalities, it can constitute a strategic element to redirect and subvert established power relationships. Second, rights in the socio-economic domain (e.g. labor, housing and land) have specific properties which work against economic neoliberalism. Following a classic Polanyian argument, the idea of socio-economic rights pulls away these goods from the market domain. This creates difficulties to the capitalist economic system, which is based on a rather strict conception of land and housing as commodities.


Palabras clave


Derechos; movimientos sociales; contraconductas; estrategias legales; gubernamentalidad; Rights; social movements; counterconducts; legal strategies; governmentality

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15366/relacionesinternacionales2018.39.005

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