Desecuritización, un concepto en construcción. El regreso al tratamiento de la energía nuclear por los cauces políticos ordinarios en Japón a la luz de Fukushima | Desecuritization, a concept under construction. The return of the treatment [...]

Maria Francisca CASADO CLARO

Resumen


Pese a que la desecuritización se ha definido como un gemelo conceptual nacido al mismo tiempo que la securitización, no ha recibido un tratamiento equivalente en el debate académico. A diferencia de esta última, ha tenido poco desarrollo tanto teórico como empírico, pasando mayormente inadvertida a pesar de resultar esencial para comprender los mecanismos desecuritizadores que conducen a la politización de cuestiones que anteriormente habían sido tratadas en modo seguridad. Más si cabe si tenemos en cuenta que para la Escuela de Copenhague la securitización suponía en cierto modo un fracaso de la política ordinaria, que es donde deberían debatirse las cuestiones que afectan a los ciudadanos.

A fin de contribuir a su desarrollo, el artículo hace una revisión de la literatura explorando distintas formas de desecuritizar las cuestiones de seguridad (estrategias objetivista, constructivista y deconstructivista; y desecuritización por estabilización, por substitución, por rearticulación o por silenciación). A fin de hacer una aportación empírica a la aplicación y difusión del concepto, se analiza el caso del retorno a la política ordinaria del tratamiento de la energía nuclear en Japón a la luz del accidente de Fukushima y, asimismo, se presenta como aportación original al debate el concepto de “desecuritización negativa”.

 

Although desecuritization has been defined as a conceptual twin born at the same time as securitization, it has not received an equivalent treatment in academic debate. Unlike the latter, it has had little theoretical or empirical development, going mostly unnoticed despite being essential to understand the desecuritizing mechanisms that lead to the politicization of issues that had previously been dealt with in a security mode. Even more so if we take into account that for the Copenhagen School, in a way securitization was a failure of ordinary politics, which is where issues that affect citizens should be discussed.

In order to contribute to its development, the article reviews the literature and explores different ways of desecuritizing security issues (objectivist, constructivist and deconstructivist strategies, and desecuritization by stabilization, by replacement, by rearticulation or by silencing). In order to make an empirical contribution to the application and diffusion of the concept, the case of the return to ordinary policy of the treatment of nuclear energy in Japan in light of the Fukushima accident is analyzed and, likewise, the concept of "negative desecuritization" is presented as an original contribution to the debate.


Palabras clave


Securitización; Politización; Desecuritización negativa; Energía nuclear; Fukushima; Securitization; Politization; Negative desecuritization; Nuclear energy

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15366/relacionesinternacionales2018.38.003

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