El fin de la naturaleza barata: o cómo aprendí a dejar de preocuparme por “el” medioambiente y amar la crisis del capitalismo | The End of Cheap Nature. Or How I learned to Stop Worrying about “The” Environment and Love the Crisis of Capitalism

Jason W. MOORE

Resumen


¿Afronta actualmente el capitalismo el “fin de la naturaleza barata”? Si así es, ¿qué podría significar esto y cuáles con las implicaciones para el futuro? Estamos, de hecho, siendo testigos del fin de la naturaleza barata en un sentido específico histórico. En vez de contemplar el fin de la naturaleza barata como la reafirmación de “límites de crecimiento” externos, sostengo que, a día de hoy, el capitalismo ha agotado la relación histórica que la produce. El fin de la naturaleza barata se comprende mejor como el agotamiento de las relaciones de valor que han restaurado periódicamente los “Four Cheaps”: trabajo, alimentos, energía y materias primas. Fundamentalmente, estas relaciones de valor son coproducidas por, y a través de, humanos con el resto de la naturaleza. La cuestión decisiva, por lo tanto, enciende las relaciones que envuelven y despliegan las sucesivas configuraciones de la naturaleza humana y extra-humana, simbólicamente capacitadas y materialmente realizadas, a través de la larga duración del sistema-mundo moderno. Significativamente, la apropiación de trabajo no remunerado —incluyendo los “regalos gratuitos” de la naturaleza— y la explotación del trabajo asalariado, forman una unidad dialéctica. Los límites del crecimiento enfrentados actualmente por el capital son suficientemente reales, y son “límites” coproducidos a través del capitalismo como ecología-mundo, uniendo la acumulación de capital, la búsqueda de poder y la coproducción de naturaleza como un todo orgánico. El límite de la ecología-mundo del capital es el capital en sí mismo.

 

Does capitalism today face the “end of cheap nature”? If so, what could this mean, and what are the implications for the future? We are indeed witnessing the end of cheap nature in a historically specific sense. Rather than view the end of cheap nature as the reassertion of external “limits to growth”, I argue that capitalism has today exhausted the historical relation that produced cheap nature. The end of cheap nature is best comprehended as the exhaustion of the value-relations that have periodically restored the “Four Cheaps”: labor-power, food, energy, and raw materials. Crucially, these value-relations are co-produced by and through humans with the rest of nature. The decisive issue therefore turns on the relations that enfold and unfold successive configurations of human and extra-human nature, symbolically enabled and materially enacted, over the longue durée of the modern world-system. Significantly, the appropriation of unpaid work —including “free gifts” of nature— and the exploitation wage-labor form a dialectical unity. The limits to growth faced by capital today are real enough, and are “limits” co-produced through capitalism as world-ecology, joining the accumulation of capital, the pursuit of power, and the co-production of nature as an organic whole. The world-ecological limit of capital is capital itself.


Palabras clave


Naturaleza barata; capitalismo; productos; comodificación;Cheap nature; capitalism; commodities; commodification

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


ARAGHI, Farshad, “The End of `Cheap Ecology´ and the Crisis of `Long Keynesianism´ en Economic & Political Weekly, vol. 45, nº 4, 2010, ps. 39–41.

ARAGHI, Farshad, “Accumulation by Displacement” en Review, vol. 32, nº 1, 2009, ps. 113–146.

ARAGHI, Farshad, “The Great Global Enclosure of Our Times” en MAGDO, Fred; BELLAMY, John; Foster y BUTTEL, Frederick (eds.), Hungry for Profit, Monthly Review Press, Nueva York, 2000, ps. 145-160.

ARRIGHI, Giovanni, The Long Twentieth Century, Verso, Londres, 1994.

ARRIGHI, Giovanni; SILVER, Beverly y BREWER, Benjamin, “Industrial Convergence, Globalization, and the Persistence of the North-South Divide” en Studies in Comparative International Development, vol. 38, nº 1, 2003, ps. 3–31.

BANCO MUNDIAL, Global Economic Prospects 2009, Banco Mundial, 2009.

BARNET, Richard, The Lean Years, Simon and Schuster, Nueva York, 1980.

BLACKBURN, Robin, “Finance and the Fourth Dimension” en New Left Review, nº 36, 2006, ps. 39-70.

BLS (Bureau of Labor Statistics), “Labor Force Participation Rate of Mothers, 1975–2007” en The Editor’s Desk, 8 de Enero, 2009: http://www.bls.gov/opubted/2009/jan/wk1/art04.htm [consultado el 01 de Mayo de 2013]

BOYDET, William; PRUDHAM, Scott y SCHURMAN, Rachel, “Industrial Dynamics and the Problem of Nature” en Society & Natural Resources, vol. 14, nº 7, 2001, ps. 555–570.

BRADSHER, Keith, “Wary of China, Companies Head to Cambodia” en New York Times, 8 de Abril, 2013: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/09/business/global/wary-of- events-in-china-foreign-investors-head-to-cambodia.html?_r=0 [consultado el 10 de Marzo de 2014]

BRAVERMAN, Harry, Labor and Monopoly Capital, Monthly Review Press, Nueva York, 1974.

BROCKWAY, Lucile, Science and Colonial Expansion, Academic Press, Nueva York, 1978.

BUNKER, Stephen, Underdeveloping the Amazon, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1985.

BURKETT, Paul, Marx and Nature, St. Martin’s, Nueva York, 1999.

CHASE-DUNN, Chistopher y HALL, Thomas, D., Rise and Demise, Westview, Boulder, 1997.

COOPER, Melinda, Life as Surplus, University of Washington Press, Seattle, 2008.

COSGROVE, Denis, Geography and Vision, I.B. Taurus, Londres, 2008.

COWEN, Tyler, The Great Stagnation, Penguin, Nueva York, 2011.

CROSBY, Alfred W., The Measure of Reality, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997.

DAVIS, Devra, The Secret History of the War on Cancer, Basic, Nueva York, 2007.

DECKARD, Sharae, “Mapping the World-Ecology”, documento no publicado, School of English, Drama, and Film, University College Dublin, Irlanda, 2012.

DESCARTES, René, A Discourse on the Method of Correctly Conducting One’s Reason and Seeking Truth in the Sciences, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006.

ENGELS, Fredrick, “Engels to J. Bloch in Berlin, Londres, 21 de Septiembre de 1980” en New International, vol. 1, nº 3, 1934, ps. 81–85.

FEDERICO, Giovanni, “The Growth of World Agricultural Production, 1800–1938” en Research in Economic History, nº 22, 2004, ps. 125–181.

FEGLEY, Brycem, “End of an Era: 30 Years of Double-Digit Chinese Growth” en From the Yardarm, vol. 7, nº 1, 2013.

FOSTER, John Bellamy, “The Epochal Crisis” en Monthly Review, vol. 65, nº 5, 2013, ps: 1–12.

FOSTER, John Bellamy, “Marx and the Rift in the Universal Metabolism of Nature” en Monthly Review, vol. 65, nº 7, 2013, ps. 1–19.

FOSTER, John Bellamy, The Ecological Revolution, Monthly Review Press, Nueva York, 2009.

FOSTER, John Bellamy y MCCHESNEY, Robert, The Endless Crisis, Monthly Review Press, Nueva York, 2012.

FOSTER, John Bellamy; CLARK, Brett y YORK, Richard, The Ecological Rift, Monthly Review Press, Nueva York, 2010.

FREEMAN, Richard, “What Really Ails Europe (and America): The Doubling of the Global Workforce” en The Globalist, 3 de Junio de 2010: http://www.theglobalist.com/what-really-ails-europe-andamerica-the-doubling-of-the-global-workforce/ [consultado el 10 de Febrero de 2014]

FRIEDMANN, Harriet, “What on Earth is the Modern World-System?” en Journal of World-Systems Research, vol. 6, nº 2, 2000, ps: 480–515.

GLACKEN, Clarence, Traces on the Rhodian Shore, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1967.

GOLDIN, Claudi, “Gender Gap” en HENDERSON, David R. (ed.), The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics, 2008: http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/GenderGap.html [consultado el 1 de Mayo de 2013]

GORDON, David; EDWARDS, Richard y REICH, Michael, Segmented Work, Divided Workers, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1982.

GORDON, Robert, Revisiting U.S. Productivity Growth over the Past Century with a View of the Future, Working Paper nº 15834, Oficina Nacional de Investigación Económica, Washington DC, 2010.

GURIAN-SHERMAN, David, Failure to Yield, Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge MA, 2009.

HARAWAY, Donna, “Situated Knowledges” en Feminist Studies, vol. 14, nº 3, 1988, ps. 575–599.

HARTMANN, Heidi, “The Family as the Locus of Gender, Class, and Political Struggle” en Signs, vol. 6, nº 3, 1981, ps. 366–394.

HARVEY, David, The Enigma of Capital and the Crises of Capitalism, Prole, Londres, 2010.

HARVEY, David, A Brief History of Neoliberalism, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2005.

HARVEY, David, The New Imperialism, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2003.

HARVEY, David, Justice, Nature, and the Geography of Difference, Blackwell, Oxford, 1996.

HARVEY, David, The Condition of Postmodernity, Blackwell, Oxford, 1989.

HARVEY, P.D.A., Maps in Tudor England, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1993.

HEINBERG, Richard, The Party’s Over, New Society, Gabriola Island BC, 2003.

HHS (Departamento de Salud y Servicios Humanos de EEUU), Health United States 2010, Washington DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010.

HOCHSCHILD, Arlie, The Commodity Frontier, Working Paper nº 1, Center for Working Family, University of California, Berkeley, 2002.

HOCHSCHILD, Arlie, The Second Shift, Viking, Nueva York, 1989.

HOPKINS, Terence y Wallerstein, IMMANUEL, “Capitalism and the Incorporation of New Zones into the World-Economy” en Review, vol. 10, nº 5/6, 1987, ps. 763–780.

JACKS, David, “From Boom to Bust?” en Vox, 16 de Agosto de 2013: http://www.voxeu.org/article/boom-bust [consultado el 20 de Noviembre de 2013]

KABEER, Naila, Marriage, Motherhood and Masculinity in the Global Economy, IDS Working Paper nº 290, Institute for Development Studies, University of Sussex, 2007.

KEATS, Sharada y WIGGINS, Steve, Non-staple Foods & Micro-nutrient Status, Overseas Development Institute, Londres, 2010.

KJELLSTROM, Tord; KOVATS, R. Sari; LLOYD, Simon J.; HOLT, Tom y TOL, Richard S., “The Direct Impact of Climate Change on Regional Labor Productivity” en Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health, vol. 64, nº 4, 2009, ps. 217–227.

KLEIN, Naomi, The Shock Doctrine, Metropolitan, Nueva York, 2007.

KLOPPENBURG, Jack, First the Seed, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1988.

LANDES, David, Prometheus Unbound, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1969.

LANGLEY, Paul, World Financial Orders, Routledge, Nueva York, 2002.

LEFEBVRE, Henri, The Production of Space, Blackwell, Oxford, 1991.

LEONARDI, Emmanuele, Biopolitics of Climate Change, Tesis Doctoral, University of Western Ontario, Canada.

LEVINS, Richard y LEWONTIN, Richard, The Dialectical Biologist, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1985.

LEWONTIN, R.C., “The Maturing of Capitalist Agriculture” en Monthly Review, vol. 50, nº 3, 1998, ps. 72–84.

LEYSHON, Andrew y THRIFT, Nigel, “The Capitalization of Almost Everything History” en Culture & Society, vol. 24, nº 7–8, 2007, ps. 97–115.

LIVINGSTON, Gretchen y COHN, D’Vera, The New Demography of American Motherhood, Pew Research center, 2010: http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2010/05/06/the-new-demography-of-americanmotherhood/ [consultado el 10 de Noviembre de 2013]

LOHMANN, Larry, “When Markets are Poison”, Corner House Briefinng Paper, nº 40, The Corner House, Dorsey, Reino Unido, 2009.

LUKE, Timothy, “Developing Planetarian Accountancy” en Current Perspectives in Social Theory, nº 26, 2009, ps. 129–159.

MAHNKOPF, Birgit, Peak Everything – Peak Capitalism?, Working Paper nº 02/2013, DFGKollegforscherInnengruppe Postwachstumsgesellschaften, Jena, Alemania, 2013.

MANSFIELD, Becky (ed.), Privatization, Routledge, Nueva York, 2009.

MARX, Karl, “Contribution to the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right” en TUCKER, Richard (ed.), Marx-Engels Reader, W.W. Norton, Nueva York, 1978.

MARX, Karl, Capital. Volume I, Vintage, Nueva York, 1977.

MARX, Karl, Grundrisse, Vintage, Nueva York, 1973.

MARX, Karl, Capital. Volume I–III, International, Nueva York, 1967.

MCAFEE, Kathleen, “Neoliberalism on the Molecular Scale” en Geoforum, vol. 34, nº 2, 2003, ps. 203–219.

MCAFEE, Kathleen, “Selling Nature to Save It?” en Society and Space, vol. 17, nº 2, 1999, ps: 133–154.

MCMICHAEL, Philip, Development and Social Change, Fifth ed., Beverly Hills, Sage, 2012.

MCMICHAEL, Philip, “Global Development and the Corporate Food Regime” en Research in Rural Sociology and Development, nº 11, 2005, ps. 269–303.

MCMICHAEL, Philip, “Slavery in Capitalism” en Theory and Society, vol. 20, nº 3, 1991, ps. 321–349.

MEADOWS, Donella; MEADOWS, Dennis; RANDERS, Jorgen y BEHRENS III, William, The Limits to Growth, Signet, Nueva York, 1972.

MERCHANT, Carolyn, The Death of Nature, Harper & Row, San Francisco, 1980.

MIDNIGHT NOTES, Promissory Notes. From Crisis to Commons: www.midnightnotes.org [consultado el 17 de Julio de 2009]

MIES, Maria, Patriarchy and Accumulation on a World Scale, Zed, Londres, 1986.

MINTZ, Sidney W., “Was the Plantation Slave a Proletarian?” en Review, vol. 2, nº 1, 1978, ps. 81–98.

MOODY, Kim, An Injury to All, Verso, Londres, 1988.

MOORE, Jason W., “El Auge de la Ecologia-Mundo Capitalista, II” en Laberinto, nº 39, 2013, ps. 6–14.

MOORE, Jason W., “El Auge de la Ecologia-Mundo Capitalista, I” en Laberinto, nº 38, 2013, ps. 9–26.

MOORE, Jason W., “Cheap Food & Bad Money” en Review, vol. 33, nº 2–3, 2012, ps. 125–161.

MOORE, Jason W., “Transcending the Metabolic Rift” en Journal of Peasant Studies, vol. 38, nº 1, 2011, ps: 1–46.

MOORE, Jason W., “Ecology, Capital, and the Nature of Our Times” en Journal of World-Systems Analysis, vol. 17, nº 1, 2011, ps. 108–147.

MOORE, Jason W, “The End of the Road? Agricultural Revolutions in the Capitalist World-Ecology, 1450–2010” en Journal of Agrarian Change, vol. 10, nº 3, 2010, ps. 389–413.

MOORE, Jason W., “`Amsterdam is Standing on Norway´. Part II” en Journal of Agrarian Change, vol. 10, nº 2, 2010, ps. 188–227.

MOORE, Jason W., “`Amsterdam is Standing on Norway´. Part I” en Journal of Agrarian Change, vol. 10, nº 1, 2010, ps. 35–71.

MOORE, Jason W., Ecology and the Rise of Capitalism, Tesis Doctoral, University of California, Berkeley, 2007.

MOORE, Jason W., “Nature and the Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism” en Review, vol. 26, nº 2, 2003, ps. 97–172.

MOORE, Jason W., “Sugar and the Expansion of the Early Modern World-Economy” en Review, vol. 23, nº 3, 2000, ps. 409–433.

MUMFORD, Lewis, Technics and Civilization, Routledge and Kegan Paul, Londres, 1934.

NIBLETT, Michael, “Impossible Quest for Wholeness” en Journal of Postcolonial Writing, vol. 49, nº 2, 2013, ps. 148–160.

O’CONNOR, James, Natural Causes. Sage, Beverly Hills, 1998.

OLOFF, Kerstin, “`Greening´ the Zombie” en Green Letters, vol. 16, nº 1, 2012, ps. 31–45.

ORTIZ, Roberto José, “Latin American Agro-Industrialization, Petrodollar Recycling, and the Transformation of World Capitalism in the Long 1970s”, documento no publicado, Fernand Braudel Center, Binghamton University, USA, 2013.

OVERTON, Mark, Agricultural Revolution in England, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1996.

PARENTI, Christian, “The Book that Launched a Movement” en The Nation, 24 al 31 de Diciembre, 2012, ps. 24–26.

PETRAM, Lodewijk O., The World’s First Stock Exchange, Tesis Doctoral, University of Amsterdam, Holanda, 2011.

PICKLES, John, A History of Spaces, Routledge, Nueva York, 2004.

POSTONE, Moishe, Time, Labor, and Social Domination, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1993.

RADETZKI, Marian, “The Anatomy of free Commodity Booms” en Resources Policy, nº 31, 2006, ps. 56–64.

ROSTOW, Walt Whitman, The world economy: history & prospect, University of Texas Press, Austin, 1978.

SACKS, Michael, “Unchanging Times” en Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 39, nº 4, 1977, ps. 793–805.

SCHOR, Juliet, The Overworked American, Basic Books, Nueva York, 1991.

SCHOR, Juliet, “The (Even More) Overworked American” en DE GRAAF, John (ed.), Take Back Your Time, Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, 2003.

SCOTT, James, Seeing Like a State, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1998.

SCOTT, John, “Who Will Take Over China’s Role as the World’s Factory Floor?” en Saturna Sextant Newsletter, vol. 5, nº 7, 2011.

SECCOMBE, Wally, Weathering the Storm, Verso, Londres, 1995.

STEFFEN, Will; GRINEVALD, Jacques; CRUTZEN, Paul y MCNEILL, John, “The Anthropocene: Conceptual and Historical Perspectives” en Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, vol. 369, nº 1938, 2011, ps. 842–867.

TANG, Ke y XIONG, Wei, “Index Investment and Financialization of Commodities” en Financial Analysts Journal, vol. 68, nº 6, 2012, ps. 54–74.

THE ECONOMIST, “Women in South Korea: A Pram Too Far” en The Economist, 26 de Octubre de 2013: http://www.economist.com/news/special-report/21588207-faced- overwhelming-pressuressouth-korean-women-have-gone-baby-strike-pram-too [consultado el 10 de Marzo de 2014]

USDC (Departamento de Comercio de EEUU), Assess Costs Everywhere, 2013: http://acetool.commerce.gov/labor-costs [consultado el 24 de Abril de 2013]

VAN DER MENSBRUGGHE, Dominique; OSORIO-RODARTE, Israel; BURNS, Andrew y BAFFES, John, “Macroeconomic Environment and Commodity Markets” en CONFORTI, Piero (ed.), Looking Ahead in World Food and Agriculture, FAO, Roma, 2011.

WALLERSTEIN, Immanuel, “End of the Road for Runaway Factories?” en Commentary, nº 351, 15 de Abril de 2013: http://www2.binghamton.edu/fbc/commentaries/ar- chive-2013/351en.htm [consultado el 14 de Noviembre de 2013]

WALLERSTEIN, Immanuel, The Modern World-System II, Academic Press, Nueva York, 1980.

WALLERSTEIN, Immanuel, The Modern World-System I, Academic Press, Nueva York, 1974.

WEBBER, Michael, “The Dynamics of Primitive Accumulation” en Environment and Planning A, vol. 44, nº 3, 2012, ps. 560–579.

WILLIAMS, Raymond, Problems in Materialism and Culture, Verso, Londres, 1980.

WOOD, Ellen Meiksins, The Origin of Capitalism, Verso, Londres, 2002.

WORSTER, Donald, “Transformations of the Earth” en Journal of American History, vol. 76, nº 4, ps. 1087–1106.

WRIGHT, Justin y JONES, Clive, “The Concept of Organisms as Ecosystem Engineers Ten Years On” en BioScience, vol. 56, nº 3, 2006, ps. 203–209.

ZIVIN Joshua y NEIDELL, Matthew, Temperature and the Allocation of Time, Working Paper nº 15717, Oficina Nacional de Investigación Económica, Washington DC, 2010.


Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.