Discurso terrorista y la militarización del contraterrorismo estadounidense: Los años de Reagan | Terrorism Discourse and the Militarization of U.S. Counterterrorism: The Reagan Years

Adrian HÄNNI

Resumen


Este artículo analiza el proceso de militarización de la política contraterrorista de Estados Unidos, mostrando como esta militarización, así como la doctrina preventiva de lucha contra el terrorismo, surgen a mitad de la década de los 80, contrariamente a la asunción dominante de que el actual enfoque contraterrorista militar no tiene precedentes y es resultado de los ataques del 11-S. Realizando un cambio radical en el discurso terrorista a comienzos de 1987, la Administración Reagan recuperaría la persecución penal del terrorismo, la cual se mantuvo durante las administraciones de George H.W. Bush y la primera de Clinton. El artículo defiende que las medidas contraterroristas estaban supeditadas a la previa legitimación de las practicas discursivas productoras de conocimiento (imágenes populares y narrativas míticas sobre el terrorismo) que fueron explotadas como estrategia de poder por el gobierno estadounidense. Por eso, sugiero que las practicas discursivas que construyen el terrorismo, al mismo tiempo que estructuran el potencial campo de acción tanto para los actores políticos como para los servicios de seguridad, y las practicas contraterroristas no discursivas han de considerarse como una entidad analítica conectada por el dispositif* foucaultiano.

This article analyzes the emergence of the militarization of U.S. counterterrorism policy, showing that militarization as well as preemption as a doctrine of fighting terrorism originate in the mid-1980s – counter to the prevailing assumption that the current militaristic counterterrorist approach is both without precedent and largely the result of the 9/11 attacks. Following a radical shift in terrorism discourse in early 1987, the Reagan administration suddenly reverted to a law enforcement approach towards terrorism, which was retained by the George H.W. Bush and the first Clinton administration. The article further demonstrates that counterterrorism measures were strongly contingent to preceding and legitimizing discursive practices that produced knowledge, popular images and mythical narratives of terrorism, and were exploited as a power strategy by the U.S. government. I therefore suggest that the discursive practices that construct terrorism, and thereby structure the potential field of action for both policy makers and security services, and the non-discursive counterterrorism practices should be regarded as an analytical entity connected by a Foucauldian dispositif.

 

** N.d T. Se mantiene el término dispositif en francés porque así lo hace el autor.



Palabras clave


Terrorismo; Contraterrorismo; Administración Reagan; dispositivo; Estados Unidos;Terrorism; counterterrorism; Reagan administration; dispositive; United States

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