El mapa y el territorio: Cuestiones ontológicas y epistemológicas sobre el terrorismo |The Map and the Territory: ontological and epistemological questions about terrorism

Joseba ZULAIKA IRURETA

Resumen


El principio de Gregory Bateson de que “el mapa no es el territorio, y el nombre no es la cosa nombrada”* debe ser aplicado al terrorismo al igual que a todo sistema de comunicación humana. Entre el acto terrorista y su nombramiento/escritura se da un proceso de clasificación por el cual la realidad misma del acto queda transformada. El terrorismo actúa como catalizador que confunde categorías semánticas diversas entre lo real y lo fingido en marcos de comportamiento básicos como “guerra”, “amenaza”, “juego”, o “ritual”. La dinámica entre terrorismo y contraterrorismo está inmersa en este juego de confusiones semánticas entre mapa y territorio. La Cosa en sí kantiana de las acciones que se sitúan en el marco “esto es guerra” y “esto es juego” son categóricamente diferentes. La negación y constitución mutua de esta dinámica está en el centro mismo de la realidad del terrorismo. El artículo argumenta que una ontología y epistemología del terrorismo, para que sean válidas, deben tomar en cuenta el principio básico de las relaciones mapa/territorio (para lo cual una teoría del juego y la fantasía puede ser tan relevante como las teorías sobre la guerra); igualmente debe estudiar los aspectos mitológicos de la figura del terrorista basados en parte en la fantasía. Lejos de equiparar la fantasía con lo “no-real”, para la teoría sicoanalítica la fantasía constituye una dimensión básica de la realidad subjetiva. La manipulación del eje del tiempo (esperando el terror futuro, la teoría militar de la prevención) es otra clave importante para estudiar la ontología del terrorismo. Finalmente hay que tener presente la arista entre terrorismo/contraterrorismo como la realidad decisiva que simultáneamente estigmatiza y constituye ambas superficies antagónicas.

 

The paper argues that the principle that “the map is not the territory, and the name is not the thing named”*, essential to any system of human communication, must be applied to terrorism as well. In between the terrorist act and its naming/writing there is a process of classification by which reality itself is transformed. Terrorism acts as a catalyst to confuse various semantic categories between the factual and the feigned, the real and the bluff, in basic performance frames such as “war,” “threat,” “play,” or “ritual.” The dialectics between terrorism and counterterrorism is plagued with such confusions between map and territory. The Thing itself of the events situated in the frame “this is war” and “this is play” are categorically different. The mutual denial and mutual constitution of such dialectics is at the center of the reality of terrorism. It is argued that a valid ontology and epistemology of terrorism must take into account the basic principle of the map/territory relations (for which a theory of play and fantasy might be as relevant as theories of war); furthermore, it must analyze the mythological aspects of the figure of the Terrorist. Far from comparing fantasy with the “non real”, for the psychoanalytic theory, fantasy represents a basic dimension of the subjective reality. The manipulation of the time axis (waiting for the future terror, the military theory of prevention) is another important key to the study of the ontology of terrorism. Eventually, there is also to be considered the edge between terrorism/counterterrorism the decisive reality simultaneously stigmatizes and constitutes both antagonistic surfaces.


* BATESON, Gregory, Steps to an Ecology of Mind, Nueva York, Ballantine Books, 1972.


Palabras clave


Relaciones mapa/territorio; terrorismo; ontología; epistemología; retórica; subjetividad;Map/territory relations; terrorism; ontology; epistemology; rhetorics; subjectivity

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