À la périphérie de l'Empire: Constructions et représentations de la Mauritanie sous administration coloniale française / On the periphery of the Empire: Constructions and Representations of Mauritania under French Colonial administration

Joana Lucas

Resumen


Resumé

Cet article propose une brève réflexion sur le statut de la Mauritanie dans le contexte des colonies de l’Afrique-Occidentale française, en mettant l’accent sur la manière dont le pays a pu, de manière récurrente, être relégué à la périphérie de l'empire colonial français d’Afrique. A travers l’analyse de la présence de la Mauritanie lors des Expositions Coloniales de la première moitié du XXe siècle et de sa promotion touristique durant la période coloniale, nous ébaucherons quelques remarques sur le statut périphérique de la Mauritanie dans le cadre des territoires de l’Afrique Occidentale sous administration coloniale française1.

Mots-clés : Mauritanie, Afrique-Occidentale française, Expositions coloniales, Tourisme, Empire

Abstract

Throughout this text I will try to contribute to a brief reflection on the status of Mauritania in the context of the colonies of French West Africa, along which I will focus on how the country was recurrently placed in the periphery of the french colonial empire in Africa.Based on the analysis of the presence of Mauritania in the Colonial Exhibitions of the first half of the XX century, as well as in tourism promotion during the colonial period, I will outline, through the constructions and representations conveyed by this corpus, some considerations on the peripheral status of Mauritania within the territories of French West Africa under colonial administration.

Keywords: Mauritania, French West Africa, Colonial Exhibitions, Tourism, Empire


Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


AGERON, Charles-Robert (1984): «L’exposition Coloniale de 1931, Mythe républicain ou mythe impérial? », en NORA, Pierre: Les lieux de mémoire, Bibliothèque illustrée des Histoires, Paris: Gallimard.

ANDERSON, Martin (2012) : «The development of British tourism in Egypt, 1815 to 1850”, Journal of Tourism History, Vol. 4 Issue 3, pp. 259-279. https://doi.org/10.1080/1755182X.2012.711373

AUDOUIN-DUBREUIL, Ariane (2004) : La Croisière Noire. Sur la trace des explorateurs du XIXe, Grenoble: Éditions Glénat.

BEHDAD, Ali (1994): Belated Travelers. Orientalism in the Age of Colonial Dissolution. Duke University Press. https://doi.org/10.1215/9780822382638

BENEDICT, Burton (1991): “International Exhibitions and National Identity”, Anthropology Today, Vol.7, No.3, pp.5-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3032792

BENNETT, Tony (1988): “The Exhibitionary Complex”, New Formations, Number 4, pp. 73-102.

BERTHO-LAVENIR, Caherine (1999): La roue et le stylo. Comment nous sommes devenues touristes, Paris: Éditions Odile Jacob.

BURNS, Peter M. (2004): “Six postcards from Arabia: A visual discourse of colonial travels in the Orient”, Tourist Studies, Vol. 4 (3), pp. 255-275. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468797604057327

CARDEIRA DA SILVA, Maria; OLIVEIRA, Sandra (2013): “O primeiro cruzeiro de férias às Colónias” en CARDEIRA DA SILVA, Maria (org.) Castelos a Bombordo, Lisboa: CRIA, pp.261-284

CONKLIN, Alice L. (1997): A Mission to Civilize. The Republican Idea of Empire in France and West Africa, 1895-1930, California: Stanford University Press.

COOPER, Frederick; STOLER, Ann Laura (1997): Tensions of Empire, Colonial Cultures in a Bourgeois World, Berkeley: University of California Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/california/9780520205406.001.0001

CORBIN, Alain (1995): L’avènement des loisirs 1850-1960, Paris: Aubier.

CORBEY, Raymond (1993): “Ethnographic Showcases, 1870-1930”, Cultural Anthropology, Vol.8, No.3, pp.338-369. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/can.1993.8.3.02a00040

CORREA, Sílvio (2011): “Caça e preservação da vida selvagem na África Colonial”, Revista Esboços, Vol.18, Nº25: 164-183.

DULUCQ, Sophie (2009): «‘Découvrir l´âme africaine’. Le temps obscurs du tourisme culturel en Afrique coloniale française (années 1920-années 1950)», Cahiers d’Etudes Africaines, Nº193-194, 2009/1-2, pp. 27-48.

Exposition nationale Coloniale de Marseille (1922) La Mauritanie, Commissariat de l’Afrique Occidentale Française, Imprimerie Coopérative Barrier & Cle, Montauban.

Exposition Coloniale Internationale de 1931, Le Gouvernement Général de l’Afrique Occidentale Française, Paris, Société d’Éditions Géographiques, Maritimes et Coloniales.

FURLOUGH, Elisabeth (2002): “‘Une leçon des choses: Tourism, Empire, and the Nation in Interwar France”, French Historical Studies, Vol.25, Nº3, pp.441-473. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/00161071-25-3-441

GEPPERT, Alexander C.T. (2010): Fleeting Cities, Imperial Expositions in Fin-de-Siécle Europ, England: Palgrave Macmillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230281837

GREGORY, Derek (2001): “Colonial Nostalgia and Cultures of Travel: Spaces of Constructed Visibility in Egypt” en ALSAYYAD, Nezar (ed.) Consuming Tradition, Manufacturing Heritage: Global norms and urban forms in the age of tourism, New York: Routledge.

GREGORY, Derek (1999): “Scripting Egypt: Orientalism and the cultures of travel” en DUNCAN, James and GREGORY, Derek (eds.) Writes of Passage: Reading Travel Writing, London and New York: Routledge.

HALE, Dana S. (2008): Races on Display. French Representations of Colonized Peoples, 1886-1940, Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.

HARP, Stephen L. (2002): “The Michelin Red Guides: Social Differentiation in Early-Twentieth-Century French Tourism” en KOSHAR, Rudy (ed.) Histories of Leisure, United Kingdom: Berg.

HAUTESERRE, Anne-Marie (2004): “Postcolonialism, Colonialism and Tourism» en LEW Alan A. (ed.) A Companion to Tourism, Blackwell Publishing.

HODEIR, Catherine (2002): “Decentering the Gaze at French Colonial Exhibitions” en LANDAU, Paul S. and KASPIN, Deborah D., Images and Empires, Visuality in Colonial and Postcolonial Africa. University of California Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/california/9780520229488.003.0010

HOM, Stephanie M. (2012): “Empires of tourism: travel and rhetoric in Italian colonial Libya and Albania, 1911–1943”, Journal of Tourism History. Vol.4 Issue 3, pp.281-300. https://doi.org/10.1080/1755182X.2012.711374

JENNINGS, Eric T. (2003): “From Indochine to Indochic: The Lang Bian/Dalat Palace Hotel and French Colonial Leisure, Power and Culture”, Modern Asian Studies, 37 (1), pp.159-194. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0026749x03001057

KOSHAR, Rudy (1998): ““What ought to be seen”: Tourists’ Guidebooks and National Identities in Modern Germany and Europe”, Journal of Contemporary History, 33 (3), pp.323-340.

La Mauritanie (1922), Gouvernement Général de l’Afrique Occidentale Française, Agence Économique de l’Afrique Occidentale Française, Éditions Coloniales Larose, Paris.

LEMAIRE, Nicolas (2010): «Claudius Madrolle et l'introduction du tourisme colonial en Indochine française 1898-1914: entre propagande économique et légitimation politique», Mémoire présenté comme exigence partiel à la Maitrise en Histoire, Université du Québec à Montréal.

LUCAS, Joana (2014): Entre « o céu e a areia » turismo, viagens e expedições. Mapeando discursos e práticas sobre a Mauritânia, Tese de Doutoramento em Antropologia, Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa.

MACCANNEL, Dean (1976): The Tourist: a new theory of the leisure class, Berkeley: University of California Press.

MCLAREN, Brian L. (2006): Architecture and Tourism in Italian Colonial Libya, an ambivalent modernism, Seattle: University of Washington Press.

MITCHELL, Timothy (1988): Colonising Egypt, Berkeley: University of California Press.

MITCHELL, Timothy (1998): “Orientalism and the Exhibitionary Order” en PREZIOSI, Donald, The Art of Art History, pp. 409-423, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

PALMOWSKI, Jan (2002): “Travels with Baedeker – The Guidebook and the Middle Classes in Victorian and Edwardian Britain” en KOSHAR, Rudy (ed.) Histories of Leisure, Oxford & New York: Berg.

PIRIE, Gordon (2009): “Incidental tourism: British Imperial air travel in the 1930s”, Journal of Tourism History, 1 (1), pp.49-66. https://doi.org/10.1080/17551820902742772

RÉAU, Bertrand (2011): Les Français et les vacances. Sociologie des pratiques et offres de loisir, Paris : CNRS Editions.

SACAREAU, Isabelle (2013): «Tourisme et Colonisation: Les Hill Stations Himalayennes de l’Empire Britannique des Indes (Darjeeling, Simla, Mussoorie, Nainital), (1820-1947)» en LORIN, Amaury y TARAUD, Christelle (dir.) Nouvelle Histoire des colonisations européennes (XIXe-XXe siècles), Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, pp.91-102.

SAID, Edward (2004 [1978]): Orientalismo, Lisboa: Livros Cotovia.

STEWARD, Jill (2004): “Performing Abroad: British Tourists in Italy and their Practices, 1840–1914” en LASANSKY, D. Medina y MCLAREN, Brian, Architecture and Tourism. Perception, Performance and Place, Oxford & New York: Berg.

TURNER, Louis; ASH, John (1976): The Golden Hordes: International Tourism and the Pleasure Periphery, New York: St. Martin’s Press.

VEBLEN, Thorstein ([1899], 2007): The theory of the leisure class, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

VIDAL, Frédéric (2010): «Faire la ville et pratiquer des lieux. L’histoire du tourisme sur les pas de Michel de Certeau», Revue d’Histoire des Sciences Humaines, Vol.2, Nº23, pp.99-115. https://doi.org/10.3917/rhsh.023.0099

WALTON, John. K. (2009): “Histories of Tourism” en JAMAL, Tazim y ROBINSON, Mike (orgs.) The Sage Handbook of Tourism Studies, Los Angeles & London: Sage, pp.115-129.

ZYTNICKI, Colette (2013): «‘Faire l’Algérie agréable’. Tourisme et colonisation en Algérie des années 1870 à 1962», Le Mouvement Social, 2013/1 nº242, pp.97-114. https://doi.org/10.3917/lms.242.0097

ZYTNICKI, Colette; KAZDAGHLI, Habib (2009): Le Tourisme dans l’Empire Français, Politiques, pratiques et imaginaires (XIXe – XXe siècles), Paris: Publications de la Société Française d’Histoire d’Outre-Mer.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15366/reim2016.21.003

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.


Copyright (c) 2016 Joana Lucas

Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial 4.0 Internacional.

Revista de Estudios Internacionales Mediterráneos (REIM) 

La REIM está vinculada en la actualidad al proyecto coordinado “Nuevos escenarios políticos, cambios sociales y transformaciones regionales en el mundo árabo-islámico tras la “primavera árabe” y sus implicaciones para España”, con los subproyectos “Participación política, islam y transnacionalidad en el mundo árabo-islámico y en contexto migratorio”, “Problemas públicos y activismos en el Magreb. La participación social y política de los jóvenes en sus dimensiones locales y transnacionales” y “La dimensión internacional de las transformaciones políticas en el mundo árabo-islámico” (Convocatoria 2014. Proyectos de I+D "Excelencia". Dirección General de Investigación Científica y Técnica. Subdirección General de Proyectos de Investigación. MINECO España)

ISSN: 1887-4460