Factores Institucionales del Logro en la Educación Media de Argentina, 1998-2007, Una Actualización

Ruben Cervini, Nora Dari, Silvia Quiroz

Resumen


Este artículo consta de tres partes. En la primera se investigan las relaciones entre la 'composición' estudiantil de la escuela (socioeconómica, académica, género), algunas características del proceso escolar ('ethos' y 'clima' escolar), según las percepciones del Director y las percepciones 'agregadas' de los alumnos, y el rendimiento en Matemática de los alumnos del último año del Secundario en Argentina. Se analizan los datos del Censo Nacional de Finalización del Nivel Secundario de 1998 (Ministerio de Educación). Se utiliza la técnica de 'análisis estadístico multinivel' con tres niveles (alumnos, escuela y provincia). Inicialmente, se detecta una estrecha asociación entre el rendimiento en Matemática y las variables de proceso escolar. Cuando se 'controla' por la 'composición' de la escuela, las actitudes y autoconceptos de los alumnos continúan manteniendo un efecto importante, mientras que las percepciones (del Director y de los alumnos) sobre los procesos institucionales dejan de tener efecto propio. En la segunda parte, el análisis de algunas variables de proceso institucional extraídas del cuestionario del Director aplicado en el Operativo Nacional de Evaluación (2007) del último año del nivel secundario, confirma algunos de los hallazgos informados en la primera parte. Finalmente, los datos del Censo 1998 se reanalizan con modelos multinivel donde se adiciona el aula como otro nivel de agregación. Se discuten las implicaciones de los resultados obtenidos en relación a las dos partes anteriores.

 


Palabras clave


Calidad; Eficacia; Cambio; Mejora; Equidad; Innovación

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