Núm. 9 (2019): PISA como evaluación educativa supranacional: luces y sombras en equidad
Monográfico

LA BRECHA DE GÉNERO EN MATEMÁTICAS Y EN LECTURA: LA PERSPECTIVA DEL ESTUDIANTE

Joel Rapp
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), España
Publicado diciembre 18, 2019

Palabras clave:

PISA, Brecha de género en matemáticas, Brecha de género en lectura, Educación comparada

Resumen

La brecha de género en matemáticas, que favorece a los chicos sobre las chicas en clase, ha adquirido cada vez más importancia en las últimas décadas. Teniendo en cuenta que la competencia matemática es crítica para las carreras STEM y para integrarse adecuadamente a través de profesiones relacionadas con las matemáticas en el mercado laboral, esta brecha es una fuente de preocupación social. Se ha debatido ampliamente la existencia y el origen de esta brecha de género. Los investigadores que representan un enfoque socio-cultural han resaltado el hecho de que se ha ido reduciendo a lo largo de los años, así como su variabilidad entre países y la correlación entre la amplitud de la brecha y los diferentes factores socio-culturales, es decir, las medidas de desigualdad de género por país, para desmontar las explicaciones basadas en diferencias biológicas. Sin embargo, a pesar de las docenas de publicaciones sobre el tema, la cuestión parece estar lejos de resolverse.

La brecha inversa en lectura se ha documentado de forma consistente comparando países y edades. La brecha que favorece a las chicas ha recibido, sin embargo, menos atención, aun cuando la competencia lingüística es tan crucial para la carrera profesional y el mercado laboral como las matemáticas. La comparación de las brechas de género en lectura y en matemáticas ha mostrado que están muy correlacionadas entre países y a lo largo del tiempo, y que existe un orden de rango consistente por su magnitud. Más aún, cuando la brecha en matemáticas de reduce, normalmente la brecha inversa en lectura aumenta. Debido a esta reciprocidad, en todas las circunstancias, incluso cuando las chicas tienen mejor rendimiento que los chicos en matemáticas, las chicas tienden a tener mejor rendimiento en lectura que en matemáticas y los chicos tienden a hacerlo mejor en matemáticas que en lectura.

En este estudio, se ha realizado un enfoque comparativo para explorar la relación mutua de las brechas en matemáticas y lectura de manera integradora, aplicando la perspectiva intra-grupo al nivel personal. Utilizando los datos de PISA 2012 de alrededor de medio millón de estudiantes de 15 años, procedentes de 10 000 centros educativos de 63 países, hemos examinado la diferencia entre estudiantes entre el rendimiento en matemáticas y lectura, además de una serie de correlatos potencialmente explicativos. De entre docenas de factores personales y escolares, el género se identificó como el predictor más dominante de la diferencia entre estudiantes. Los resultados fueron consistentes en la comparación internacional, y pueden explicar la persistencia de estereotipos de género en el rendimiento de matemáticas y en la menor representación de las mujeres en carreras relacionadas con STEM.

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