El Sistema “Mundial” del PPNB Final en el Norte de Mesopotamia y el Sur del Levante: Aglomeraciones, control del intercambio a larga distancia y transición de los primeros centros religiosos a poblados centrales

Jesús Gil Fuensanta, Alfredo Mederos Martín

Resumen


Durante el Neolítico Precerámico (PPN) del Próximo Oriente, tuvieron lugar muchos cambios económicos y sociales en el PPNA, cuando identificamos un proceso de aglomeración de centenares de personas en grandes asentamientos como Jericó. El registro arqueológico prueba notables contactos entre las sociedades contemporáneas en el Levante y algunos asentamientos de Anatolia central y oriental. La entidad de estos contactos es difícil de estimar, pero asumimos que tales contactos y las redes de intercambio, las cuales podemos estudiar principalmente a través del comercio de obsidiana, usando rutas terrestres y marítimas, con la interacción de grandes asentamientos a través de pocos intermediarios, ya estaban plenamente operativas en ese periodo, y debieron haber ayudado a transformar las jerarquías locales, creando interdependencias económicas y rituales, aceleradas después del final de Göbleki Tepe en el PPNB Medio. Entonces se consolidaron los grandes asentamientos, nodos en las redes de intercambio, que alcanzaron entre 10 y 15 ha en diferentes regiones ecológicas como Basta, Beisamoun o ‘Ain Ghazal durante el PPNB Final, y construyendo de tal modo Antiguos Sistemas “Mundiales” interdependientes.


Palabras clave


Neolítico Precerámico; Göbekli Tepe; Çayönü; Aşikli; Jerico; centros rituales; poblados sedentarios; obsidiana; comercio; excedente; Sistemas Mundiales Antiguos

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15366/ane3.rubio2018.004

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