¿De aldea fortificada a Caput Civitatis? Tradición y ruptura en una Comunidad Castreña del siglo I D.C.: El Poblado de Chao Samartín (Grandas de Salime, Asturias)

Ángel Villa Valdés

Resumen


El Chao Samartín es un paraje inmediato al pueblo de Castro, en la localidad asturiana de Grandas de Salime, donde las evidencias de asentamientos estables fortificados se remontan a fines de la Edad del Bronce (tránsito siglos IXVIII a.C.). La ocupación del lugar se prolongó durante la Edad del Hierro hasta bien consumada la implantación romana cuando, durante la segunda mitad del siglo II d.C., un violento seísmo asoló el poblado y precipitó su definitivo abandono.

Bajo dominio romano el castro adquiere, en un ambiente militarizado que se prolongará hasta fines del siglo I d.C, la condición de cabecera territorial, tal vez en calidad de caput civitatis. Se suceden en este tipo cambios sustanciales en las fortificaciones y en la trama edificada castreña hasta su consolidación como asentamiento abierto, residencia de grupos sociales preeminentes.
    

Sobre sus ruinas, ya en tiempos altomedievales, se instaló una necrópolis vigente en tiempos de la monarquía asturiana.

PALABRAS CLAVE: Castro, ejército, domus, minería aurífera, terremoto.

Abstract 

The Chao Samartin site is located adjacent to the small village of Castro, in the Grandas de Salime Township (Asturias, northern Spain). The site displays evidence of fortified settlements from the Late Bronze Age, in the transition between the 9th and 10th Centuries b.C. Site occupation persisted during the Iron Age, until Roman control was well established. At that time (second half of the 2nd Century a.D.), a violent earthquake destroyed the settlement, triggering its sudden abandonment.
    

The archaeological excavations began in 1990, from this moment on research went on without interruption, as a part of the Navia-Eo Archaeological Director Plan, under guidance and sponsorship of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Principality of Asturias.

Roman presence is noticed from the first decades of the 1st century A.D. linked to the arrival of military forces to the settlement. The control and beginning of exploitation of the new conquered territories demanded the participation of the Roman army, which besides being skilful in battles, had the technical ability to direct the massive benefit of the gold mines, to construct the road links and to guarantee the safety of the extracted metal.
    

After the military victory, the organization of the conquered territories demanded the consolidation of regional power centres - Chao Samartín was one of them -which had peripheral control and militarized stations, as Monte Castrelo de Pelou. With the influence of the army, the centenary hillfort will experience its conversion into a relevant administrative centre, in which troops will act as effective agents for the introduction of the new culture.

KEY WORDS: Hillfort, roman army, roman house, roman gold mining, earthquake.


Texto completo:

PDF


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15366/cupauam2009.35.001

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.


Cuadernos de Prehistoria y Arqueología Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (CuPAUAM)

ISSN versión electrónica: 2530-3589

ISSN versión impresa: 0211-1608