Núm. 17 (2017)
II. Filosofía Moral, Política y del Derecho / Moral, Political and Legal Philosophy

Supranational Protecion of Language Rights in Universal and European Context / Protección supranacional de los derechos lingüísticos en un contexto universal y europeo

Joanna Osiejewicz
University of Zielona Góra, Poland
Publicado diciembre 11, 2017

Resumen

Ni existe ni siquiera un tratado internacional universal dedicado extensamente a los derechos lingüísticos. Este artículo presenta los resultados del análisis de tratados universales y regionales seleccionados, que contienen disposiciones para la protección de los derechos lingüísticos, y tienen como objetivo extraer conclusiones sobre la efectividad del enfoque legal internacional en esta materia. El análisis de actos elegidos del derecho internacional y del derecho europeo lleva a la conclusión de que los estados están más que dispuestos a aceptar regulaciones blandas, debido a la falta de preocupación por las duras consecuencias legales, y luego a ajustar los problemas particulares con ayuda de acuerdos bilaterales sobre una base de reciprocidad.


Palabras clave: derechos lingüísticos, minorías lingüísticas, derechos colectivos, derecho internacional, derecho europeo.

Abstract

Not even one universal international treaty is dedicated extensively to linguistic rights. This article presents the results of the analysis of selected universal and regional treaties containing provisions for the protection of language rights, and aims at drawing conclusions about the effectiveness of the legal international approach in this subject matter. The analysis of the chosen acts of the international law and the European law leads to the conclusion that states are rather willing to accept soft law regulations, due to the lack of concern about stiff legal consequences, and then to adjust the particular issues with the help of bilateral agreements on a reciprocal basis.

Key words: language rights, linguistic minorities, collective rights, International Law, European Law.

 

Citas

Legal acts:

Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, OJ C 326, 26.10.2012, p. 391–407.

Charter of the United Nations, http://www.un.org/en/sections/un-charter/un-charter-full-text/ (2016-11-06).

Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, Rome 4 November 1950 r., ETS No. 005.

Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities, G.A. Res. 47/135, U.N. Doc. A/RES/47/135 (Dec. 18, 1992).

European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, done in Strasburgu on 5 November 1992, ETS No. 148, http://www.coe.int/pl/web/conventions/full-list/-/conventions/treaty/148/signatures?p_auth=XMDjTPza (2016-10-25).

Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, done in Strasboug on 1 Februar 1995, ETS No. 157.

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights opened for signature at New York on 19 December 1966, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 999, p. 171 and vol. 1057, p. 407.

International Labour Organization (ILO), Convention No 169 concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries, adopted June 27, 1989, entered into force September 25, 1991, 72 ILO Official Bull. 59; 28 ILM 1382 (1989).

Treaty between the Republic of Poland and the Federal Republic of Germany on good neighborhood and friendly cooperation, signed in Bonn on 17 June 1991, Polish Journal of Laws No 14 item 56.

Treaty on European Union (Consolidated version 2016) - OJ C 202 (2016).

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, http://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/index.html (2016-11-06).

Universal Declaration on Linguistic Rights, (June 9, 1996), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization [UNESCO], www.unesco.org/cpp/uk/declarations/linguistic.pdf (2016-10-25).

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Literature:

Arzoz X., The Nature of Language Rights, Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe No 2 (2007), p. 1-35.

Connelly A., The European Convention on Human Rights and the Protection of Minorities, 2 Irish Journal of Europan Law 1993, p. 277-293.

De Varennes F., Language, Minorities and Human Rights. International Studies in Human Rights, Volume 45, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers,, The Hague / Boston / London 1996.

Jabłoński M., Jarosz-Żukowska S., Prawa człowieka i systemy ich ochrony. Zarys wykładu, Wrocław 2004.

Janusz G., Prawa Podstawowe a ochrona Mniejszości Narodowych w Unii Europejskiej, Teka Komisji Politologii i Stosunków Międzynarodowych O.L. PAN, No 5 (2010), p. 167-193.

Mälskoo L., The Language Rights in International Law: Why the Phoenix is Still in the Ashes, 12 Florida Journal of International Law No 12 (2000), p. 441.

Mancini S., De Witte B., Language Rights as Cultural Rights: A European Perspective, in: Francioni F., Scheinin M. (ed.), Cultural Human Rights, Leiden 2008, p. 247-284.

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Sadowski M., Godność człowieka i dobro wspólne jako fundament wartości europejskich. Propozycje katolickiej nauki społecznej, in: E. Kozerska, T. Scheffler (ed.) Aksjologiczne i praktyczne aspekty integracji europejskiej, Wrocław 2007, p. 105 –107.

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Wróbel A., Karta Praw Podstawowych. Komentarz, Warszawa 2013.

Judgments:

Chapman v. The United Kingdom (Application no. 27238/95), ruling of European Court of Human Rights of 18 Jannuary 2001, ECHR 2001-I.

Haase v. Germany (Application no. 11057/02), ruling of European Court of Human Rights of 8 April 2004, ECHR 2004-III.

Lovelace v. Canada, U.N. Human Rights Committee, Final Views, Communication No. R.6/24, U.N. Doc. Supp. No. 40 (A/36/40) (1981)

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Documents:

Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, High Commissioner on National Minorities, The Oslo Recommendations Regarding the Linguistic Rights of National Minorities, 01.02.1998, http://www.osce.org/hcnm/67531?download=true (2016-11-25).

Rule 215: Right of petition, Rules of Procedure of the European Parliament, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getLastRules.do?language=en&reference=RULE-198