Vol. 28 (2019)
Artículos

Concheros brasileños desde una perspectiva zooarqueológica

ROSA CRISTINA CORRÊA LUZ SOUZA
Universidade Federal de Sergipe
KITA CHAVES DAMASIO MACARIO
Universidade Federal Fluminense
RITA SCHEEL-YBERT
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
ALBÉRICO NOGUEIRA DE QUEIROZ
Universidade Federal Fluminense
EDUARDO QUEIROZ ALVES
Universidade Federal Fluminense
MARIANA SAMÔR LOPES
Universidade Federal Fluminense
CARLA REGINA ALVES CARVALHO
Universidade Federal Fluminense
ORANGEL AGUILERA
Universidade Federal Fluminense
EDSON PEREIRA SILVA
Universidade Federal Fluminense
Publicado diciembre 18, 2019

Palabras clave:

SAMBAQUI, BIODIVERSIDAD, MOLUSCO, CRUSTÁCEO, PESQUERÍA PREHISTÓRICA, DATACIÓN POR RADIOCARBONO

Resumen

Los concheros son sitios arqueológicos conformados por pescadores-cazadores-re- colectores con alta concentración de restos de fauna marina, compuestos básicamente de conchas de moluscos marinos y terrestres, caparazones de crustáceos, restos de peces, huesos humanos y animales, entre otros. Estos restos son evidencias de asentamientos prehistóricos caracterizados como rasgos distintivos en la planicie costera arenosa, barras arenosas de lagunas costeras e islas y bahías rocosas, que constituyen un importante testimonio de la paleodiversidad y la prehistoria brasileña. Este artículo pretende presentar los estudios que se han desarrollado con los vestigios zooarqueológicos recuperados en los concheros de la costa del estado de Río de Janeiro, Brasil, que amplían el alcance del concepto de biodiversidad, generando perspec- tivas a largo plazo, combinando múltiples enfoques y metodologías para mejorar la comprensión de los cambios ambien- tales. Se realizó un estudio malacológico, ictiológico y carcinológico sobre los restos zoarqueológicos recuperados en los concheros. Las conchas, los otolitos y el carbón vegetal bien conservados fueron seleccionados en capas sucesivas de los concheros para el análisis de las edades por radiocarbono y para la caracterización de la pesquería a lo largo del tiempo. Las conchas también se utilizaron como estructuras valiosas en el estudio del efecto del reservorio marino y los moluscos terrestres han demostrado ser una alternativa importante para representar la concentración isotópica del carbono atmos- férico. Además de representar un registro cronológico confiable, los otolitos demostraron ser excelentes marcadores de señales de isótopos ambientales. Si bien los concheros son acumulaciones artificiales, los restos zooarqueológicos repre- sentan una muestra de la fauna existente en el momento de su construcción y pueden proporcionar información sobre el paleoambiente, lo que permite establecer comparaciones con los tiempos actuales.

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