Vol. 27 (2018)
Artículos

Manufacturing technique and social identity: three cases of ‘manufacture-by-wear’ technique

MONICA MĂRGĂRIT
Universidad Autonoma de Madrid
PAVEL MIREA
Teleorman County Museum, str. 1848, nr. 1, Alexandria, Romania
ADRIAN BĂLĂȘESCU
“Vasile Pârvan” Institute of Archaeology, Romanian Academy, str. Henri Coandă, nr. 11, București, Romania
Publicado noviembre 23, 2018

Resumen

RESUMEN: Este trabajo se centra en la identificación de cambios operados en el procesado de materiales óseos en el Neolítico del sudeste europeo a partir de tres tipos de producción de manufacturas por la técnica de desgaste que son típicas de la región: bipartición por abrasión, segmentación con fibra y perforación por técnica de erosión. El procesado de las materias óseas viene muy condicionado por sus formas anatómicas naturales, razón por la cual solo un rango restringido de variables de transformación con cambios mínimos a través del tiempo es espera- ble. No obstante, numerosos especialistas invocan al valor cultural conferido por la comunidad como el elemento clave en la selección de materias primas más que estas limitaciones aludidas sobre la forma de la materia prima. Por ello, existen algunos ejemplos en donde ha habido poco cambio a lo largo del tiempo en la selección de las materias primas a pesar de haber habido variabilidad en la disponibilidad de especies animales. Como resultado de esto el estudio de los tres tipos de técnica de (manufacturado por desgaste) se torna más interesante. Estas técnicas no están presentes en la región en todo momento. Algunas de ellas aparecen en material óseo trabajado en Rumania y zonas adyacentes a principios del Neolítico pero desaparecen igual de rápido (bipartición por abrasión) o solo lo hacen de forma esporádica a principios del Calcolítico (perforación y segmentación con fibra). Basándonos en análisis experimentales de las tres técnicas de procesado y comparando ello con los conjuntos arqueológicos, nuestro estudio pretende incorporar todas las variables relevantes (gestos tecnológicos, tiempo requerido para cada operación, herramientas utilizadas, etc.) y evaluar si estas representan una innovación auténtica en el modo en que fueron procesados los materiales óseos.

 

PALABRAS CLAVE: EUROPA SUDORIENTAL, RUMANIA, NEOLÍTICO, APROVECHAMIENTO DEL HUESO, OPCIONES TECNOLÓGICAS, TRADICIONES CULTURALES

Citas

Ballase, M.; Bălășescu, A.; Janzen, A.; Lughetto-Monfrin, J.; Mirea, P. & Andreescu, R. 2013: Early herding at Magura-Boldul lui Moș Ivănuș (early sixth millennium BC, Romania): environments and seasonality from stable isotope analysis. European Journal of Archaeology 16(2): 221-246.

Bălăşescu, A. 2014: Arheozoologia neo-eneoliticului de pe valea Teleormanului. Mega, Cluj Napoca.

Beldiman, C. 2005: Paleotechnology of antler working in the Mesolithic of the Iron Gates, Romania. In: Luik, H.; Choyke, A.M.; Batey, C.E. & Lougas, L. (eds.): From Hooves to horns, from mollusc to mammoth. Manufacture and use of bone artifacts from Prehistoric Times to the Present. Proceedings of the 4th Meeting of the (ICAZ) Worked Bone Research Group, Tallinn (Estonie), 26-31 août 2003: 33-46. Muinasaja Teadus 15.

Beldiman, C. & Sztancs, D.M. 2013: The osseous artefacts of the Starčevo-Criș culture in Romania. An overview. In: Comșa, A.; Bonsall, C. & Nikolova, L. (eds.): Facets of the Past. The Challenge of the Balkan Neo-Eneolithic. Proceedings of the International Symposium Celebrating the 85th Birth Anniversary of Eugen Comșa, 6-12 october 2008: 106-133. Academy Publishing House, București.

Beldiman, C.; Sztancs, D.M. & Ilie, C. 2012: Artefacte din materii dure animale în colecția Muzeului de Istorie Galați. Eneolitic/Osseous Materials Artefacts in the Collection of History Museum Galați. Aeneolithic. Mega, Cluj Napoca.

Bosch Lloret, A.; Chincilla Sánchez, J.; Tarrus, I. & Galter, J. 2000: El poblat lacustre neolitic de la Draga. Excavacions de 1990 a 1998. Centre d’arqueologia subaquatica de Catalunya (Monografies des Casc 2), Girona.

Bourdieu, P. 1977: Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Choyke, A.M. 2005: Bronze Age Bone and Antler Working at the Jászdózsa–Kápolnahalom Tell. In: Luik, H.; Choyke, A.M.; Batey, C.E. & Lõugas, L. (eds.): From hooves to horns, from mollusc to mammoth: 129-156. Muinasaja Teadus 15.

— 2007: Objects for a lifetime – tools for a season: the bone tools from Ecsegfalva 23. In: Whittle, A. (ed.): The Early Neolithic on the Great Hungarian Plain. Investigations of the Körös culture site of Ecsegfalva 23, County Békés, vol II. Varia Archaeologica Hungarica, XXI: 641-666. Publicationes Instituti Archaeologici Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae Budapestini, Budapesta.

— 2009: Grandmother’s Awl: Individual and Collective Memory through Material Culture. In: Barbiera, I.; Choyke, A.M. & Rasson, J. (eds.): Materializing Memory, Archaeological Material Culture and the Semantics of the Past: 21-40. B.A.R. (International Series) 1977. Oxford.

— 2013: Hidden Agendas: Ancient Raw Material Choice for Worked Osseous Objects in Central Europe and Beyond. In: Choyke, A. & O’Connor, S. (eds.): From these Bare Bones: Raw Materials and the Study of Worked Osseous Materials: 1-13. Oxbow Books, Oxford.

— 2014: Continuity and discontinuity at Gyõr-SzabadrétDomb: bone tools from a Chalcolithic settlement in northwest Hungary/Continuitate și discontinuitate la Győr-Szabadrét-domb: unelte din os dintr-o așezare calcolitică din nord-vestul Ungariei. In: Mărgărit, M.; Le Dosseur, G. & Averbouh, A. (eds.): An overview of the exploitation of hard animal materials during the Neolithic and Chalcolithic/O privire asupra exploatării

materiilor dure animale de-a lungul neoliticului și calcoliticului: 295-315. Cetatea de Scaun, Târgoviște.

Choyke, A. & Daroczi-Szabo, M. 2010: The Complete and Usable Tool: Some Life Histories of Prehistoric Bone Tools in Hungary. In: Legrand, A. & Sidéra,

I. (eds.): Ancient and Modern Bone Artefacts from America to Russia. Cultural, technological and functional signature: 235-248. B.A.R. (International Series) 2136. Oxford.

Choyke, A.m.; Vretemark, M. & Sten, S. 2004: Levels of social identity expressed in the refuse and worked bone from the Middle Bronze Age Százhalombatta-Földvár, Vatya culture, Hungary. In: Jones, S.; Day, O.; van Neer, W. & Ervynck, A. (eds.): Behavior Behind Bones. The Zooarchaeology of Ritual, Religion, Status and Identity: 177-189. Oxbow Books, Oxford.

Creswell, R. 1994: La nature cyclique des relations entre le technique et le social. Approche technologique de la chaîne opératoire. In: Latour, B. & Lemonnier,

P. (eds.): De la préhistoire aux missiles balistiques. L’intelligence sociale des techniques: 275-289. Editions La découverte, Paris.

Dobres, M.A. 2000: Technology and Social Agency: Outlining a Practice Framework for Archaeology. Blackwell Publishers, Oxford.

— 2010: Archaeologies of technology. Cambridge Journal of Economics 34: 103-114.

Evin, A.; Girdland Flink, L.; Bălăşescu, A.; Popovici, D.; Andreescu, R.; Bailey, D.; Mirea, P.; Lazăr, C.; Boroneanţ, A.; Bonsall, C.; Strand Vidarsdottir, U.; Brehard, S.; Tresset, A.; Cucchi, T.; Larson, G. & Dobney, K. 2015: Unravelling the complexity of domestication: a case study using morphometrics and ancient DNA analyses of archaeological pigs from Romania. Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society B 370(1660): 1-7.

Fehlmann, D. 2010: Worked Bone, Tooth and Antler Objects from the Early Neolithic Site of Asparn/ZayaSchletz (Lower Austria). In: Legrand, A. & Sidéra,

I. (eds.): Ancient and Modern Bone Artefacts from America to Russia. Cultural, technological and functional signature: 31-40. B.A.R. (International Series) 2136. Oxford.

Lemonnier, P. 1992: Elements for an anthropology of technology. Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Llobregat, E.; Martí Oliver, B.; Bernabeu, J.; Villaverde, V.; Gallart, M.D.; Pérez, M.; Acuña, J.D. & Robles,

F. 1981: Cova de les Cendres (Teulada, Alicante). Informe preliminar. Revista del Instituto de Estudios Alicantinos 34: 87-111.

Luik, H. 2011: Material, Technology and Meaning: Antler Artefacts and Antler Working on the Eastern Shore

of the Baltic Sea in the Late Bronze Age. Estonian Journal of Archaeology 15(1): 32-55.

Luik, H. & Maaldre, L. 2007: Bronze Age bone artefacts from Narkûnai, Nevieriokë and Kereliai fortified settlements. Raw materials and manufacturing technology. Archeologia Lituana 8: 5-39.

Maggi, R.; Starnini, E. & Voytek, B. 1997: The bone tools from Arene Candide: Bernabo Brea excavations. – Arene Candide: a Functional and Environmental Assessment of the Holocene Sequence (Excavations Bernabo Brea-Cardini 1940–50): 513–559. Éd. Il Calamo, Rome.

Marti Oliver, B. 1983: Cova de l’Or (Beniarrés, Alicante). Memorias de las campañas de excavación 19751979. Noticiario Arqueológico Hispánico 16: 11-55.

Mărgărit, M.; Bălășescu, A. & Mirea, P. 2014a: Prelucrarea oaselor de ovi-caprine în nivelul Starčevo-Criş I din aşezarea de la Măgura ‘Buduiasca’ (‘Boldul lui Moş Ivănuş’) (Processing of Ovis aries/Capra hircus bones from the Starčevo-Criş I level at Măgura ‘Buduiasca’ (‘Boldul lui Moş Ivănuş’) settlement). Buletinul Muzeului Județean Teleorman. Seria Arheologie 6: 7-18.

Mărgărit, M.; Boroneanț, A. & Bonsall, C. 2017: Analiza morfologică și funcțională a pieselor din materii dure animale din situl mezolitic de la Ostrovul Banului (jud. Mehedinți) (Morphological and functional analyze of animal hard substances finds from Ostrovul Banului Mesolithic site (Mehedinți County)). Banatica 27: 39-72.

— in press: Exploatarea tehnologică a cornului în situl arheologic de la Ostrovul Corbului (Technological exploitation of Cervus elaphus antler at the Mesolithic site of Ostrovul Corbului). Banatica 28.

Mărgărit, M.; Ștefan, C.E. & Dumitrașcu, V. 2014b: Management of osseous materials for processing artifacts in the Boian settlement of Radovanu La Muscalu (Romania). Archaeologia Bulgarica 18(3): 1-34.

Mărgărit, M. & Boroneanț, A. 2017: Industria materiilor dure animale din situl mezolitic de la Alibeg (jud. Caraș-Severin) (The bone, antler and tusk assemblage from the Mesolithic site at Alibeg (Caraș-Severin County). Materiale și Cercetări Arheologice (serie nouă) XIII: 15-30.

Mărgărit, M.; Boroneanț, A. & Bonsall, C. in press: Analiza morfologică și funcțională a pieselor din materii dure animale din situl mezolitic de la Ostrovul Banului (jud. Mehedinți) (Morphological and functional analysis of materils made of hard animal materials from the Mesolithic site of Ostrovul Banului (Mehedinţi county). Banatica 27.

Micu, C. 2004: Observaţii privind industria materiilor

dure animale în aşezarea neolitică de la Isaccea, punctul „Suhat” (Observations on the hard animal materials industry from the Neolithic settlement of Isaccea, “Suhat” point). In: Cândea, I.; Sârbu, V. & Neagu, M. (eds.): Prinos lui Petre Diaconu la 80 de ani: 41-75. Istros, Brăila-Călărași.

Mirea, P. 2005: Consideraţii asupra locuirii Starčevo-Criş din sud-vestul Munteniei (Considerations about the Starčevo-Criş cultural level in the southwest of Muntenia). In Honorem Silvia Marinescu-Bîlcu. CCDJ XXII: 37-52.

— 2011: Between Everyday and Ritual Use ‘Small Altars’ or ‘Cult Tables’ from Măgura ‘Buduiasca’, Teleorman County (I): the Early Neolithic Finds”. BMJT 3: 41-57.

Murray, C. 1979: Les techniques de débitage de métapodes de petits ruminants à Auvernier-Port. In: Camps-Fabrer, H. (ed.): Industrie de l’os et bois de cervidé durant le néolithique et âge des métaux. Première réunion du groupe de travail no. 3 sur l’industrie de l’os préhistorique: 27–35. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS). Paris.

Pascual Benito, J.L. 1996: Los anillos neolíticos de la Península Ibérica. I Congrés del Neolitic a la Peninsula Ibérica (Gavà-Bellaterra, 1995) 1: 279–289.

— 2016: Unas técnicas muy neolíticas: ranurado y abrasión para la elaboración de punzones a partir de metapodios de ungulados. Del neolític a l’edat del bronze en el Mediterrani occidental. Estudis en homenatge a Bernat Martí Oliver. TV SIP 119: 147-158.

Perlès, C. 2010: Grèce et Balkans: deux voies de pénétration distinctes du Néolithique en Europe ? In: Demoule, J.-P. (dir.): La révolution néolithique dans le monde: 263–281. CNRS Éditions, Paris.

Poplin, F. 1974: Deux cas particuliers de débitage par usure. 1er Colloque international sur l’industrie de l’os dans la Préhistoire : 85-92. Abbaye de Sénanque.

Roux, V. 2010: Technological innovations and developmental trajectories: Social factors as evolutionary forces. In: O’Brien, M.J. & Shennan, S.J. (eds.): Innovation in cultural systems. Contributions from Evolutionary Anthropology: 217-234. The MIT Press, Cambridge.

— 2013: Spreading of Innovative Technical Traits and Cumulative Technical Evolution: Continuity or Discontinuity? Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 20: 312-330.

Sénépart, I. 1984: Premier aperçu sur l’industrie osseuse du Cardial (Espagne, Languedoc, Provence, Italie). Mémoire de DEA de l’Université d’Aix-en-Provence, Aix-en-Provence.

— 2004: Fiche travail l’os au Néolithique et du Chalcolithique dans le sud de la France. In: Ramseyer, D. (dir.): Cahier 11: Matières et techniques: 151–163. Éditions de la société préhistorique française, Paris.

Sidéra, I. 1995: L’habitat du Rubané récent du Bassin parisien: L’industrie en matières osseuses. In: Ilett, M.

& Plateaux, M. (dir.): Le site néolithique de Berryau-Bac ‘le Chemin de la Pêcherie’ (Aisne): 116-125.

C.N.R.S. éditions (Monographies du Centre de Recherches Archéologiques, 15). Paris.

— 2000a: Les Matières dures animales. L’outillage en os et en ivoire. In: Ramseyer, D. (ed.): Muntelier/ Fischergässli. Un habitat néolithique au bord du lac de Morat (3895 à 3820 avant, J.-C.): 118-156. Cahiers d’Archéologie fribourgeoise 15. Éd. Universitaires, Fribourg.

— 2000b: Animaux domestiques, bêtes sauvages et objets en matières animales du Rubané au Michelsberg. De l’économie aux symboles, des techniques à la culture. Gallia Préhistoire 42: 108-194.

— 2004: Exploitation de l’os au Néolithique dans les bassins parisien et rhénan. In: Ramseyer, D. (dir.): Cahier 11: Matières et techniques: 163-171. Éditions de la Société Préhistorique Française, Paris.

— 2005: Technical data, typological data: a confrontation. From Hooves to horns, from mollusc to mammoth. Manufacture and use of bone artifacts from Prehistoric Times to the Present. Proceedings of the 4th Meeting of the (ICAZ) Worked Bone Research Group, Tallinn (Estonie), 26-31 août 2003: 81-90.

Muinasaja Teadus 15.

— 2008: Rubané, VSG et Cardial. Filiations de l’industrie osseuse. In: Burnez-Lanotte, L.; Allard, P. & Ilett,

M. (eds.): Fin des traditions danubiennes dans le Néolithique du Bassin parisien et la Belgique (51004700 BC). Autour des recherches de Claude Constantin: 209-219. Mémoire 44 de la Société Préhistorique Française, Paris.

— 2012: Nouveau regard sur la néolithisation. L’industrie osseuse de l’Anatolie au Bassin parisien via la Méditerranée. De Boccard, Paris.

Stark, M.; Bowser, B. & Horne, L. (eds.): 2008: Cultural transmission and material culture. Breaking down boundaries. Arizona University Press, Tucson.

Thissen, L. 2012: Starčevo-Criş pottery from TELEOR 003, S Romania. BMJT 4: 5-45.

— 2013: Middle Neolithic ceramics from TELEOR 003, Southern Romania. BMJT 5: 25-123.

Vitezović, S. 2013a: Bone industry from Starčevo-Grad.

Technology and Typology. In: Lang, F. (ed.): The Sound of Bones. Proceedings of the 8th Meeting of the ICAZ Worked Bone Research Group in Salzburg 2011, ARCHÆOPlus (Schriften zur Archäologie und

Archäometrie an der Paris, Lodron, Band 5): 263–

Salzburg Universität, Salzburg.

— 2013b: The prehistoric bone tool assemblage from Grivac (Central Serbia). Journal of Serbian Archaeological Society 29: 209-232.

Voinea, V.; Grigoruţă, O. & Cărpuș, C. 2014: Hard animal material adornments discovered in Hamangia settlement from Gheia/Podoabe din materii dure animale descoperite în aşezarea Hamangia de la Cheia. In: Mărgărit, M.; Le Dosseur, G. & Averbouh, A. (eds.): An overview of the exploitation of hard animal materials during the Neolithic and Chalcolithic/O privire asupra exploatării materiilor dure animale de-a lungul neoliticului și calcoliticului: 101–136. Cetatea de Scaun, Târgoviște.

Walker, A. & Bogaard, A. 2011: Preliminary archaeological rezults from Teleor 003/Măgura Buduiasca. In: Mills, S. & Mirea, P. (eds.): The Lower Danube in Prehistory: Landscape Changes and Human Environment Interactions Proceedings of the International Conference, Alexandria 3-5 November 2010: 151-

Renaissance, Bucureşti.

Wobst, H.M. 1999: Style in archaeology or archaeologists in style. In: Chilton, E.S. (ed.): Material Meanings: Critical Approaches to the Interpretation of Material Culture: 118-132. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.