The dogs of Roman Vindolanda, Part III: Quantifying juvenilization and pleiotropic effects of miniaturization

Deb Bennett, Robert M. Timm

Resumen


RESUMEN: Este trabajo se centra en los harriers, perros pequeños de complexión grácil am- pliamente representados en el arte romano pero indocumentados hasta la fecha sobre la base   de material esquelético. Con ellos comparamos los restos de otros tipos de perros pequeños recuperados en Vindolanda y otros yacimientos de época romana. La caracterización precisa de los perros pequeños requiere diferenciar entre pedomorfía y juvenilización en la ontogenia del cráneo. Presentamos un nuevo método para cuantificar el grado de juvenilización de los cráneos de perro basado en la comprensión del desarrollo diferencial de los centros de osificación dérmi- cos y endocondrales. Enumeramos efectos funcionales y pleiotrópicos de la morfología craneal y dentaria y del desarrollo que son característicos de perros miniaturas pero infrecuentes en perros enanos y en perros grandes de proporciones normales. Comparando un amplio elenco de perros modernos y lobos determinamos el grado con el cual los pequeños perros gráciles de época romana difieren de las formas primitivas no juvenilizadas. Utilizamos análisis de proporciones de la forma del cráneo canino utilizando parámetros previamente señalados como de alto valor diagnóstico por el análisis de componentes principales (ACP). Aunque algunos perros de tamaño pequeño y medio presentan cráneos extremadamente juvenilizados, cráneos igualmente pequeños de Vindolanda no están más juvenilizados que los de lobos y dingos. Aunque los perros pequeños y gráciles existen ya desde la Edad del Hierro tardía concluímos que el fenómeno de la juvenilización en perros surgió con posterioridad a la época romana.

 

PALABRAS CLAVE: CANIS FAMILIARIS, PERRO DOMÉSTICO, PERRO ENANO, PERRO MINIATURA, NEO- MORFOSIS, PEDOMORFOSIS, JUVENILIZACIÓN, ROMANO–BRITÁNICO, VINDOLANDA


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15366/archaeofauna2018.27.004

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