Núm. 3 (2019)
Artículos

La significación como nivel teórico para una diferencia estructural entre la ficción y la no ficción

Miguel Amores Fúster
Universidad de Zaragoza
Biografía
Editora invitada: Claudia Sofía Benito Temprano
Publicado diciembre 10, 2019

Palabras clave:

Ficcionalidad, significación, diferencias ficción-no ficción, discurso.

Resumen

La expresión literaria ficcional es potencialmente ilimitada. Podría decirse, al modo de Searle, que potencialmente cualquier texto puede ocurrir en ficción. Sin embargo, los contenidos de los discursos no ficcionales siempre tienen algún tipo de límite. Partiendo de esta premisa básica, en este artículo se defenderá que el correlato semiótico primario que explica esta diferencia se encuentra en el nivel de lo que Umberto Eco entiende por «significación» (es decir, el vínculo culturalmente codificado que, dentro del signo, une plano de la expresión y plano del contenido). Así, una diferencia teórica estructural entre ficción y no ficción es que ambas crean sentido siguiendo lógicas de significación diferentes. Mientras que en los textos no ficcionales el vínculo significante se rige por normas predeterminadas que surgen de una serie de interacciones sociales reales, en los textos literarios ficcionales dicho vínculo se administra de forma potencialmente ilimitada como si se tratara de un potencial.

 

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Citas

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Austin, John (1955): How to do Things with Words, Oxford, Clarendon Press.

Nielsen, Henrik; James Phelan; Richard Walsh (2015): «Ten Theses about Fictionality», in Narrative 23, (1): 61-73. https://doi.org/10.1353/nar.2015.0005

Cohn, Dorrit (1999): The Distinction of Fiction, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press.

Derrida, Jacques (1988): Limited Inc., Evanston (Illinois), Northwestern University Press.

Doležel, Lubomír (1998): Heterocosmica. Fiction and Possible Worlds, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Ducrot, Oswald; Jean-Marie Schaeffer (1995): Nouveau dictionnaire encyclopédique des sciences du langage, Paris: Seuil.

Eco, Umberto (1979): A Theory of Semiotics, Bloomington, Indiana University Press.

Foucault, Michel (1972): The Archaeology of Knowledge, translated from French by A. M. Sheridan Smith, New York, Pantheon Books.

Hamburger, Käte (1977): Die Logik der Dichtung. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta.

Hempfer, Klaus (2004): «Some Problems Concening a Theory of Fiction(ality)», in Style, 38 (3): 302-324. https://doi.org/10.1215/ddnov.038020302

Houellebecq, Michel (2000): The Elementary Particles, translated from French by Frank Wynne, New York, Alfred Knopf.

Genette, Gérard (1993): «Acts of Fiction», in (1993): Fiction & Diction, Ithaca (New York), Cornell University Press: 30-54.

Gorman, David (2008): «Theories of Fiction», in Herman, David, Jahn, Manfred and Ryan, Marie-Laure (eds.) (2008): Routledge Encyclopedia of Narrative Theory, New York, Routledge: 163-167.

Grice, Herbert (1967): «Logic and Conversation», in Cole, Peter and Morgan, Jerry (eds.) (1967): Syntax and Semantics, Vol III: Speech Acts, New York: Academic Press: 41-58.

Joyce, James (2012): Finnegans Wake, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Martínez Bonati, Félix (1992): «El arte de escribir ficciones», in (1992): La ficción narrativa (su lógica y ontología), Murcia: Murcia University Press: 61-69.

Morris, Charles (1938): «Foundations of the Theory of Signs», in Neurath, Otto, Carnap, Rudolph and Morris, Charles (eds.) (1938): International Encyclopedia of United Science, vol. I, no. 2, Chicago: Chicago University Press: 1-59.

Ohmann, Richard (1971): «Speech Acts and the Definition of Literature», in Philosophy & Rhetoric 4 (1): 1-19.

Pavel, Thomas (1986): Fictional Worlds, Cambridge, Harvard University Press.

Pratt, Mary Louise (1977): Towards a Speech Act Theory of Literary Discourse, Bloomington (Indiana), Indiana University Press.

Riffaterre, Michael (1990): Fictional Truth, Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Richardson, Brian (2011): «What is Unnatural Narrative Theory?», in Alber, Jan and Heinze, Rüdiger (eds.) (2011): Unnatural Narratives, Unnatural Narratology, Berlin, De Gruyter: 23-40. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110229042.23

Ronen, Ruth (1994): Possible Worlds in Literary Theory, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511597480

Ryan, Marie-Laure (1991): Possible Worlds, Artificial Intelligence and Narrative Theory, Bloomington (Indiana): Indiana University Press.

Saussure, Ferdinand (1966): Course in General Linguistics, translated from French by Wade Baskin, New York, McGraw-Hill.

Schaeffer, Jean-Marie (2013): «Fictional vs. Factual Narration», in Hünh et al. (eds.) The Living Handbook of Narratology, Hamburg, Hamburg University Press: http://www.lhn.uni-hamburg.de/article/fictional-vs-factual-narration (last visit: 17/06/2019)

Schank, Roger and Robert Abelson (1977): Scripts, Plans, Goals and Understanding. An Inquiry into Human Knowledge Structures, Hillsdale (New Jersey), Erlbaum.

Searle, John (1969): Speech Acts, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139173438

Searle, John (1975): «The Logical Status of Fictional Discourse.», in New Literary History 6 (2): 319-332. https://doi.org/10.2307/468422

Shang, Biwu (2015): «Unnatural Narratology: Core Issues and Critical Debates», in Journal of Literary Semantics 44 (2): 169-194. https://doi.org/10.1515/jls-2015-0007

Van Dijk, Teun (1980): Macrostructures. An Interdisciplinary Study of Global Structures in Discourse, Interaction and Cognition, Hillsdale (New Jersey), Erlbaum.

Van Dijk, Teun; Kintsch, Walter (1983): Strategies of Discourse Comprehension, New York, Academic Press.

Walsh, Richard (2007): The Rethoric of Fictionality. Narrative Theory and the Idea of Fiction. Columbus (Ohio), Ohio University Press.

Walton, Kendall (1990): Mimesis as Make-Believe, Cambridge, Harvard University Press.