Núm. 59 (2015)

Función física entre subgrupos de mayores de 55 años físicamente activos / Physical Function Among Olders Subgroups Physically Active pp. 543-558

Publicado octubre 1, 2015
Cómo citar
Cuesta-Vargas, A., Giné-Garriga, M., & González-Sánchez, M. (2015). Función física entre subgrupos de mayores de 55 años físicamente activos / Physical Function Among Olders Subgroups Physically Active pp. 543-558. Revista Internacional De Medicina Y Ciencias De La Actividad Física Y Del Deporte, (59). https://doi.org/10.15366/rimcafd2015.59.009


Objetivo: analizar de qué manera la capacidad neuromuscular de producir fuerza explosiva e isotónica máxima, en los miembros inferiores y en la espalda, contribuyen al equilibrio en mayores diferenciando dicha respuesta a partir de la edad y del género de los sujetos..

Material y método: 113 mayores participaron en este estudio donde se instrumentalizaron pruebas comunes (extensión lumbar, salto con contramovimiento, test del alcance funcional y prueba de levántate y anda) para medir la capacidad neuromuscular de la fuerza y medición del equilibrio. Se distribuyeron los grupos por sexo y a partir de un análisis de subgrupos en función de la edad de los participantes.

Resultados: en función del sexo y de la edad, las personas mayores muestran respuestas diferentes ante los mismos estímulos, ofreciendo un mayor rendimiento los hombres más jóvenes, y un menor rendimiento las mujeres mayores. Además, se han comprobado correlaciones significativas entre variables funcionales y de la capacidad neuromuscular de la fuerza que oscila entre 0.497 y 0.811 en el subgrupo de mujeres y entre 0.416 y 0.833 en el subgrupo de hombres.

Conclusiones: la edad y el género en personas mayores actúan como un condicionante negativo del rendimiento durante la ejecución de tareas funcionales y pruebas para medir la capacidad neuromuscular de la fuerza.


PALABRAS CLAVE: análisis de subgrupos, fuerza,  equilibrio,  asesoramiento,  caída.



Objective: To analyze how the neuromuscular ability to produce force (maximal isotonic and explosive force), by lower limb and back muscles, contributes to explain the balance capacity in healthy elders. The analysis considers the age and gender of the participants.

Material and Method: one hundred and thirteen healthy older participated in the present study were common physical test were instrumentalized (lumbar extension, functional reach test and get up and go test) to measure maximal force and balance. The analysis was developed considering gender and age of the participants. 

Results: considering the age and gender of the participants, it could argue that older people show different responses to the same stimuli, providing higher performance by younger men and lower performance by older women. Furthermore, significant correlations were found between variables and the ability to perform functional task and neuromuscular force test between 0.497 and 0.811 for women subgroup and between 0.416 and 0.833 for men subgroup.

Conclusions: There are two negative conditions that affect the performance of functional tasks that analyze the strength or balance of people: Gender, the yield in less women than men, and age where older elderly showed lower performance on the tasks requested.

KEYWORDS: Cluster analysis, strength, balance, assessment, accidental fall


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.


Aagaard. P., Magnusson, P.S., Larsson, B., Kjaer, M., Krustrup, P. (2007). Mechanical muscle function, morphology, and fiber type in lifelong trained elderly. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 39,1989-1996. http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e31814fb402

Abellan van Kan, G., Rolland, Y., Andrieu, S., Bauer, J., Beauchet, O., Bonnefoy, M.,… Vellas, B. (2009). Gait speed at usual pace as a predictor of adverse outcomes in community-dwelling older people an International Academy on Nutrition and Aging (IANA) Task Force. J Nutr Health Aging, 13, 881-889. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12603-009-0246-z

American Geriatrics Society, British Geriatrics Society, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Panel on Falls Prevention. (2001). Guideline for the prevention of falls in older persons. Guideline for the prevention of falls in older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc, 49: 664–672. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1532-5415.2001.49115.x

Bogduk, N., Macintosh, J.E., Pearcy, M.J. (1992). A universal model of the lumbar back muscles in the upright position. Spine, 17, 897–913. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00007632-199208000-00007

Bosco, C., Luhtanen, P., Komi, P. (1983). A simple method for measurement of mechanical power in jumping. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1983; 50: 273-282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00422166

Courtright, S.H., McCormick, B.W., Postlethwaite, B.E., Reeves, C.J., Mount, M.K. (2013). A Meta-Analysis of Sex Differences in Physical Ability: Revised Estimates and Strategies for Reducing Differences in Selection Contexts. J Appl Psychol, 3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0033144

Cuesta-Vargas, A.I. (2008). Filtro de salud previo a la práctica deportiva saludable. Rev Int Med Cienc Act Fís Deporte, 29.

Daubney, M.E., Culham, E.G. (1999). Lower-extremity muscle force and balance performance in adults aged 65 years and older. Phys Ther, 79, 1177-1185.

Doherty, T.J. (2003). Invited review: Aging and sarcopenia. J Appl Physiol, 95, 1717-1727. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00347.2003

Duncan, P.W., Weiner, D.K., Chandler, J., Studenski, S. (1990). Functional Reach: A new clinical measure of balance. J Gerontol, 45, M192-197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronj/45.6.M192

Fried, L.P., Bandeen-Roche, K., Chaves, P.H., Johnson, B.A. (2000). Preclinical mobility disability predicts incident mobility disability in older women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 55A, M43-52.

Giné-Garriga, M., Guerra, M., Marí-Dell'Olmo, M., Martin, C., Unnithan, V.B. (2009). Sensitivity of a modified version of the 'Timed Get Up and Go' Test to predict fall risk in the elderly: a pilot study. Arch Gerontol Geriatr, 49, e60-e66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2008.08.014

Hardy, S.E., Perera, S., Roumani, Y.F., Chandler, J.M., Studenski, S.A. (2007). Improvement in usual gait speed predicts better survival in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc, 55, 1727-1734. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01413.x

Izquierdo, M., Aguado, X., Gonzalez, R., López, J.L., Häkkinen, K. (1999). Maximal and explosive force production capacity and balance performance in men of different ages. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 79, 260-267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s004210050504

Janssen, H.C., Samson, M.M., Meeuwsen, I.B., Duursma, S.A., Verhaar, H.J. (2004). Strength, mobility and falling in women referred to a geriatric outpatient clinic. Aging Clin Exp Res, 16, 122-125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03324540

Kannus, P., Sievänen, H., Palvanen, M., Järvinen, T., Parkkari, J. (2005). Prevention of falls and consequent injuries in elderly people. Lancet, 26, 1885-1893. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67604-0

Katsiaras, A., Newman, A.B., Kriska, A., Brach, J., Krishnaswami, S., Feingold, E., … Goodpaster, B.H. (2005). Skeletal muscle fatigue, strength, and quality in the elderly: the Health ABC Study. J Appl Physiol, 99, 210-216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01276.2004

Komi, P.V., Bosco, C. (1978). Utilization of stored elastic energy in leg extensor muscles by men and women. Med Sci Sports, 10, 261-265.

Kuh, D., Bassey, E.J., Butterworth, S., Hardy, R., Wadsworth, M.E. (2005). Musculoskeletal Study Team. Grip strength, postural control, and functional leg power in a representative cohort of British men and women: associations with physical activity, health status, and socioeconomic conditions. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 60A, M224-231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/60.2.224

Lezzoni, L.I., McCarthy, E.P., Davis, R.B., Siebens, H. (2000). Mobility problems and perceptions of disability by self-respondents and proxy respondents. MedCare, 38, 1051-1057. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005650-200010000-00009

Liu, Y., Peng, C.H., Wei, S.H., Chi, J.C., Tsai, F.R., Chen, J.Y. (2006). Active leg stiffness and energy stored in the muscles during maximal counter movement jump in the aged. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 16, 342-351. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2005.08.001

Lord, S.R., Sherrington, C., Menz, H.B. (2001) Falls in older people. Risk factors and strategies for prevention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

McPhee, J.S., Hogrel, J.Y., Maier, A.B., Seppet, E., Seynnes, O.R., Sipilä, Jones DA. Physiological and functional evaluation of healthy young and older men and women: design of the European Myo Age study. Biogerontology. 2013 May 31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10522-013-9434-7

Moreland, J., Finch, E., Stradford, P., Balsor, B., Gill, C. (1997) Interrater reliability of six tests of truck muscle function and endurance. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 26, 200-208. http://dx.doi.org/10.2519/jospt.1997.26.4.200

Müller, R., Strässle, K., Wirth, B. (2010). Isometric back muscle endurance: an EMG study on the criterion validity of the Ito test. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 20, 845-850. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2010.04.004

Podsiadlo, D., Richardson, S. (1991). The Timed Up and Go: a test of basic, functional mobility for frail elderly persons. J Am Geriatr Soc, 39, 142-148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.1991.tb01616.x

Ries, J.D., Echternach, J.L., Nof, L, (2009). Gagnon Blodgett M Test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change scores for the timed "up & go" test, the six-minute walk test, and gait speed in people with Alzheimer disease. Phys Ther, 89, 569-579. http://dx.doi.org/10.2522/ptj.20080258

Schoene, D., Wu, S.M., Mikolaizak, A.S., Menant, J.C., Smith, S.T., Delbaere, K., Lord, S.R. (2013). Discriminative ability and predictive validity of the timed up and go test in identifying older people who fall: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Geriatr Soc, 61, 202-208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgs.12106

Slinde, F., Suber, C., Suber, L., Edwén, C.E., Svantesson, U. (2008). Test - retest reliability of three different countermovement jumping test. J Strength Cond Res, 22, 640-644. http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181660475

Studenski, S., Perera, S., Patel, K., Rosano, C., Faulkner, K., Inzitari, M.,... Guralnik, J. (2011). Gait speed and survival in older adults. JAMA, 5, 50-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2010.1923

Takahashi, T., Ishida, K., Yamamoto, H., Takata, J., Nishinaga, M., Doi, Y., Yamamoto, H. (2006). Modification of the functional reach test: analysis of lateral and anterior functional reach in community-dwelling older people. Arch Gerontol Geriatr, 42, 167-173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2005.06.010

Tinetti, M.E., Kumar, C. (2010). The patient who falls: "It's always a trade-off". JAMA, 303, 258–266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2009.2024

Tinetti, M.E., Speechley, M., Ginter, S.F. (1988). Risk factors for falls among elderly persons living in the community. N Engl J Med, 319, 1701-1707. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198812293192604

Verghese, J., Holtzer, R., Lipton, R.B., Wang, C. (2009). Quantitative gait markers and incident fall risk in older adults. J Gerontol A BiolSci Med Sci, 64, 896-901. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glp033

Verghese, J., Wang, C., Lipton, R.B., Holtzer, R., Xue, X. (2007). Quantitative gait dysfunction and risk of cognitive decline and dementia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 78, 929-935. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2006.106914

Vidoni, E.D., Billinger, S.A., Lee, C., Hamilton, J., Burns, J.M. (2012). The physical performance test predicts aerobic capacity sufficient for independence in early-stage Alzheimer disease. J Geriatr Phys Ther, 35, 72-78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JPT.0b013e318232bf61