Función física entre subgrupos de mayores de 55 años físicamente activos / Physical Function Among Olders Subgroups Physically Active pp. 543-558

A. Cuesta-Vargas, M. Giné-Garriga, M. González-Sánchez

Resumen


Objetivo: analizar de qué manera la capacidad neuromuscular de producir fuerza explosiva e isotónica máxima, en los miembros inferiores y en la espalda, contribuyen al equilibrio en mayores diferenciando dicha respuesta a partir de la edad y del género de los sujetos..

Material y método: 113 mayores participaron en este estudio donde se instrumentalizaron pruebas comunes (extensión lumbar, salto con contramovimiento, test del alcance funcional y prueba de levántate y anda) para medir la capacidad neuromuscular de la fuerza y medición del equilibrio. Se distribuyeron los grupos por sexo y a partir de un análisis de subgrupos en función de la edad de los participantes.

Resultados: en función del sexo y de la edad, las personas mayores muestran respuestas diferentes ante los mismos estímulos, ofreciendo un mayor rendimiento los hombres más jóvenes, y un menor rendimiento las mujeres mayores. Además, se han comprobado correlaciones significativas entre variables funcionales y de la capacidad neuromuscular de la fuerza que oscila entre 0.497 y 0.811 en el subgrupo de mujeres y entre 0.416 y 0.833 en el subgrupo de hombres.

Conclusiones: la edad y el género en personas mayores actúan como un condicionante negativo del rendimiento durante la ejecución de tareas funcionales y pruebas para medir la capacidad neuromuscular de la fuerza.

 

PALABRAS CLAVE: análisis de subgrupos, fuerza,  equilibrio,  asesoramiento,  caída.

 

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze how the neuromuscular ability to produce force (maximal isotonic and explosive force), by lower limb and back muscles, contributes to explain the balance capacity in healthy elders. The analysis considers the age and gender of the participants.

Material and Method: one hundred and thirteen healthy older participated in the present study were common physical test were instrumentalized (lumbar extension, functional reach test and get up and go test) to measure maximal force and balance. The analysis was developed considering gender and age of the participants. 

Results: considering the age and gender of the participants, it could argue that older people show different responses to the same stimuli, providing higher performance by younger men and lower performance by older women. Furthermore, significant correlations were found between variables and the ability to perform functional task and neuromuscular force test between 0.497 and 0.811 for women subgroup and between 0.416 and 0.833 for men subgroup.

Conclusions: There are two negative conditions that affect the performance of functional tasks that analyze the strength or balance of people: Gender, the yield in less women than men, and age where older elderly showed lower performance on the tasks requested.

KEYWORDS: Cluster analysis, strength, balance, assessment, accidental fall


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15366/rimcafd2015.59.009

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