Núm. 57 (2015)
Área 12. APRENDIZAJE MOTOR / MOTOR LEARNING

Efectos de un programa perceptivo-motor en la respuesta de reacción en mayores / Effects Of A Perceptual-Motor Program In Response Reaction To Older People pp. 105-121

Publicado octubre 2, 2015

Resumen

Diversos trabajos han mostrado que se puede reducir el tiempo de reacción en los mayores con la práctica de actividad física (Hunter et al., 2001) e incluso igualar al de los jóvenes (Light et al., 1996). 52 hombres y mujeres de la ciudad de Melilla distribuidos en dos grupos de estudio: un grupo control (n=26 ; M= 68,56 años) que participa en actividades físicas genéricas y un grupo experimental (n=26 ; M=67,32 años) que ha participado en las mismas actividades más un programa de entrenamiento específico para la mejora del equilibrio, ajuste postural y tiempo de reacción. Los resultados no muestran diferencias significativas en el postest ni en la prueba de transferencia, pero los sujetos del grupo experimental alcanzan mejores desempeños en las dos variables de estudio (Tiempo de reacción simple - TRs y tiempo de inicio del movimiento - TIm) (GE TRs M= .55 ; TIm M=. 53 ; GC TRs M=.60  ; TIm M=. 64). Por subgrupos de estudio, las mujeres del subgrupo 60-70 años participantes en el programa obtuvieron resultados significativamente mejores que el resto de subgrupos considerados.

PALABRAS CLAVES: Tiempo de Respuesta, Programa sensorio –motor, Calidad de Vida, Mayores

 

ABSTRACT

According to several studies, physical activity can reduce the reaction time of elderly people (Hunter et al., 2001) and even make it equal to that of young people (Light et al., 1996). This project included 52 men and women from the City of Melilla distributed in two groups of study: a Control Group (n=26; M=68, 56 years old) taking part in generic physical activities, and an Experimental Group (n=26; M=67, 32 years) undertaking these same activities and also a specific training programme designed to improve balance, postural adjustment and reaction time. The results do not show significant differences either in the post-test or in the transfer test. However, the subjects from the experimental group achieved better performances on the two study variables (simple reaction time or sRT and initial movement time iMT) (EG sRT M=.55; iMT M=.53; CG sRT M=.60; iMT M=.64). In the per-subgroup analysis, the women of the 60-70-years-old subgroup who participated in the programme obtained significant better results than the subjects of the other subgroups.

KEY WORDS: Response time, Sensory-motor program, Quality of life, Elderly people

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