Vol. 18 Núm. 70 (2018)


Publicado junio 15, 2018
Cómo citar
Marins, J., Pereira, L., Amorim, P., Arnaiz-Lastras, J., Sillero-Quintana, M., & Alfenas, C. (2018). SUPLEMENTOS DE CARBOHIDRATOS DURANTE UN EJERCICIO: EFECTOS SOBRE LOS ELECTRÓLITOS Y GLUCOSA / SUPPLEMENTS OF CARBOHYDRATES LONG DURING EXERCISE: EFFECTS ON THE ELECTROLYTES AND GLUCOSE. Revista Internacional De Medicina Y Ciencias De La Actividad Física Y Del Deporte, 18(70). https://doi.org/10.15366/rimcafd2018.70.005



Objetivo: Identificar si la forma de presentación de los suplementos de carbohidratos (SC) influye en la respuesta de la concentración plasmática de electrólitos y glucosa durante un ejercicio de larga duración. Doce hombres realizaron cuatro pruebas de 90 min en cicloergometro (55-60%VO2máx), seguidas por 6 km a máxima velocidad, consumiendo SC en diferentes presentaciones (líquido, gel o sólido) y un día únicamente consumían agua. Se analizaron las concentraciones de sodio, potasio y glucosa en sangre antes del ejercicio, cada 30 minutos de prueba, y tras los 6 km. No hubo diferencia significativa en la respuesta de los electrolitos durante todo estudio. Hubo diferencias significativas (p<0,05) en la glucosa cuando se consumieron SC independientemente de su presentación frente al consumo exclusivo de agua. Se concluye que la forma de presentación de los SC no influye en la concentración de glucosa en sangre durante el ejercicio de larga duración.

PALABRAS CLAVE: Nutrición deportiva, Hidratación, Electrolitos plasmáticos.



Objective: To identify if the format of carbohydrate supplements (CS) influence the response of the plasmatic concentration of electrolytes and glucose during long duration exercise. Twelve men performed four tests of 90 min on a cycle ergometer (55-60% VO2max), followed by 6 km at maximum speed, consuming CS in different forms (liquid, gel or solid) and one day just consuming water. It was analyzed the concentrations of sodium, potassium and blood glucose before exercise, every 30 minutes of test, and after 6 km. There was no significant difference in the response of electrolytes during the study. However, the glucose showed significant differences (p <0.05) when it was consumed CS regardless of their form, whenever just water was consumed. In this way is possible to conclude, that the format of the SC does not affect the blood glucose concentration during long duration exercise.

KEY WORDS: Sports Nutrition, Hydration, Electrolytes plasmatic.


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.


Altoe, J.L., Silva, R.P.,Ferreira, F.G., Makkai, L.,Amorim, P.R.S., Volpe, S. &Marins, J.C.B. (2011). Blood glucose changes before and during exercise with three meal conditions. Gazz Med Ital,170, 177-184.

Anastasiou, C.A., Kavouras, S.A., Arnaoutis, G., Gioxari, A., Kollia, M. Botoula, E., et al. (2009). Sodium replacement and plasma sodium drop during exercise in the heat when fluid intake matches fluid loss. J Athl Train, 44(2), 117-123. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-44.2.117

Armstrong, L.E., Casa, D.J., Millard-Stafford, M., Moran, D.S., Pyne, S.W. & Roberts, W.O. (2007). American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exertional heat illness during training and competition. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 39(3), 556-572. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31802fa199

Asplund, C.A., O'Connor, F.G.&Noakes, T.D. (2011) Exercise-associated collapse: an evidence-based review and primer for clinicians. Br J Sports Med,45(14):1157-1162. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2011-090378

Bennard, P. & Doucet, E. (2006). Acute effects of exercise timing and breakfast meal glycemic index on exercise-induced fat oxidation. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 31(5), 502-511. https://doi.org/10.1139/h06-027

Bergmann, J.F., Chassany, O., Petit, A., Triki, R., Caulin, C. & Segrestaa, J.M. (1992). Correlation between echographic gastric emptying and appetite: influence of psyllium.Gut, 33(8), 1042-1043. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.33.8.1042

Borg, G.A. (1982). Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 14(5), 377-381. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-198205000-00012

Campbell, C., Prince, D., Braun, M., Applegate, E. & Casazza, G.A. (2008). Carbohydrate-supplement form and exercise performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 18(2), 179-190. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.18.2.179

Carvalho, M.V.,Marins, J.C.B.&Garcia, E.S. (2007) . The influence of water versus carbohydrate-electrolyte hydration on blood components during a 16-km military march. Mil Med, 172, 79-82. https://doi.org/10.7205/MILMED.172.1.79

Casa, D.J., Armstrong, L.E., Hillman, S.K., Montain, S.J., Reiff, R.V., Rich, B.S., et al. (2000). National athletic trainers' association position statement: fluid replacement for athletes. J Athl Train, 35(2), 212-224.

Casa, D.J., Clarkson, P.M. & Roberts, W.O. (2005). American College of Sports Medicine roundtable on hydration and physical activity: consensus statements.Curr Sports Med Rep, 4(3), 115-127. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.CSMR.0000306194.67241.76

Casa, D.J., Stearns, R.L, Lopez, R.M, Ganio, M.S, McDermott, B.P.Walker, Yeargin, S.Yamamoto, L.M., Mazerolle, S.M., Roti, M.W., Armstrong, L.E.&Maresh, C.M. (2010) Influence of hydration on physiological function and performance during trail running in the heat. J Athl Train,45(2):147-156. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.CSMR.0000306194.67241.76

Cheuvront, S.N., Kenefick, R.W., Montain, S.J. &Sawka, M.N. (2010) Mechanisms of aerobic performance impairment with heat stress and dehydration. J Appl Physiol, 109(6):1989-1995. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00367.2010

Chorley, J., Cianca, J. &Divine, J. (2007). Risk factors for exercise-associated hyponatremia in non-elite marathon runners. Clin J Sport Med,17(6):471-477. https://doi.org/10.1097/JSM.0b013e3181588790

Cintra, I.P., Heyde, M., Shmitz, B., Franceschini, S.C.C., Taddei, J., & Sigulem, D.M. (1997). Métodos de inquéritos dietéticos. Cad Nutr, 13, 11-23.

Clausen, T. (1998). Clinical and therapeutic significance of the Na+,K+ pump*. Clin Sci (Lond), 95(1), 3-17. https://doi.org/10.1042/CS19970254

Faria, V.C., Cazal, M.M., Cabral, C.A.C.&Marins, J.C.B. (2011). Influência do índice glicêmico na glicemia em exercício físico aeróbico. Motriz, 17(3), 395-405. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1980-65742011000300003

Febbraio, M.A., Chiu, A., Angus, D.J., Arkinstall, M.J.& Hawley, J.A. (2000). Effects of carbohydrate ingestion before and during exercise on glucose kinetics and performance. J Appl Physiol, 89(6), 2220-2226. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.2000.89.6.2220

Fortney, S.M., Wenger, C.B., Bove, J.R. & Nadel, E.R. (1984). Effect of hyperosmolality on control of blood flow and sweating. J Appl Physiol, 57(6), 1688-1695. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1984.57.6.1688

Gisolfi, C.V., Lambert, G.P. & Summers, R.W. (2001). Intestinal fluid absorption during exercise: role of sport drink osmolality and [Na+]. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 33(6), 907-915. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1984.57.6.1688

Green, H.J., Duhamel, T.A., Smith, I.C., Rich, S.M., Thomas, M.M., Ouyang, J.&Yau, J.E. (2011). Muscle fatigue and excitation-contraction coupling responses following a session of prolonged cycling. Acta Physiol (Oxf), 203(4):441-455. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-1716.2011.02335.x

Hallen, J. (1996). K+ balance in humans during exercise. Acta Physiol Scand, 156(3), 279-286. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-


Hernandez, A.J., Nahas, R.M., Rodrigues, T.,Meyer, F., Zogaib, P., Lazzoli, J.K., Magni, J.R.T., Marins, J.C.B., Carvalho,T., Drummond, F. A. & Daher, S. S. (2009) . Modificações dietéticas, reposição hídrica, suplementos alimentares e drogas: comprovação de ação ergogênica e potenciais riscos para a saúde. Rev Bras Med Esporte, 15,1-12.

Howley, E.T., Bassett, D.R.Jr. &Welch, H.G. (1995) Criteria for maximal oxygen uptake: review and commentary. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 27(9):1292-1301. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199509000-00009

Ivy, J.L., Res, P.T., Sprague, R.C., & Widzer, M.O. (2003). Effect of a carbohydrate-protein supplement on endurance performance during exercise of varying intensity. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 13(3), 382-395. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.13.3.382

Kenefick, R.W.,Cheuvront, S.N., Palombo, L.J., Ely, B.R. &Sawka, M.N.(2010) Skin temperature modifies the impact of hypohydration on aerobic performance. J Appl Physiol,109(1):79-86. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00135.2010

Kraft, J.A., Green, J.M., Bishop, P.A., Richardson, M.T., Neggers, Y.H. &Leepe, J.D. (2012) The influence of hydration on anaerobic performance: a review. Res Q Exerc Sport, 83(2):282-292. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2012.10599859

Loo, D.D., Zeuthen, T., Chandy, G. & Wright, E.M. (1996). Cotransport of water by the Na+/glucose cotransporter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 93(23), 13367-13370. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.93.23.13367

Lugo, M., Sherman, W.M., Wimer, G.S., & Garleb, K. (1993). Metabolic responses when different forms of carbohydrate energy are consumed during cycling. Int J Sport Nutr, 3(4), 398-407. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsn.3.4.398

Marins, J.C.B. (2011). Hidratação na atividade física e no esporte: equilíbrio hidromineral. Várzea Paulista, SP: Fontoura.

Marins, J.C.B., Dantas, E.H.M. & Navarro, S.Z. (2000). Deshidratación y ejercicio físico. Selección, 9(3), 149-163.

Marins, J.C.B., Garcia, E.P.,Dantas, E.H.M., Garcia, J.V. & Navarro, S.Z. (2001). Bebidas para deportistas y electrolitos plasmáticos. Arch Med Deporte, Pamplona, 23 (86), 621-626.

Marins, J.C.B., Dantas, E.H.M. & Navarro, S.Z. (2002). Diferentes tipos de hidratação durante o exercício prolongado e sua influência sobre o potássio plasmático. Fit Perfor J, 1, 31-40.

Marins, J.C.B., Dantas, E.H.M. & Navarro, S.Z. (2003). Diferentes tipos de hidratação durante o exercício prolongado e sua influência sobre o sódio plasmático. Rev Bras Ciên Mov, 11(1), 13-22.

Mason, W.L., McConell, G. & Hargreaves, M. (1993). Carbohydrate ingestion during exercise: liquid vs solid feedings. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 25(8), 966-969. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199308000-00013

McRae, K.A. &Galloway, S.D. (2012) Carbohydrate-electrolyte drink ingestion and skill performance during and after 2 hr of indoor tennis match play. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab,22(1):38-46. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.22.1.38

MCardle, W., Katch, F., & Katch, V. (2001). Fisiologia do Exercício: Nutrição e Desempenho Humano. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara.

Montain, S.J. & Coyle, E.F. (1992). Influence of graded dehydration on hyperthermia and cardiovascular drift during exercise. J Appl Physiol, 73(4), 1340-1350. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1992.73.4.1340

Nielsen, J.J., Mohr, M., Klarskov, C., Kristensen, M., Krustrup, P., Juel, C., et al. (2004). Effects of high-intensity intermittent training on potassium kinetics and performance in human skeletal muscle. J Physiol, 554(Pt 3), 857-870. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2003.050658

Osterberg, K.L., Pallardy, S.E., Johnson, R.J. & Horswill, C.A. (2009). Carbohydrate exerts a mild influence on fluid retention following exerciseinduced dehydration. J Appl Physiol, 108(2), 245-250. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.91275.2008

Paterson, D.J. (1996). Role of potassium in the regulation of systemic physiological function during exercise. Acta Physiol Scand, 156(3), 287-294. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-201X.1996.190000.x

Patterson, S.D. & Gray, S.C. (2007). Carbohydrate-gel supplementation and endurance performance during intermittent high-intensity shuttle running. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 17(5), 445-455. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.17.5.445

Pérez-Guisado, J. (2009). Importancia del momento en que se realiza la ingestión de los nutrientes. Rev Int Med Cienc Act Fis Deporte, 9(33), 14-24.Http://cdeporte.rediris.es/revista/revista33/artingesta91.htm. http://cdeporte.rediris.es/revista/revista33/artingesta91.htm

Pfeiffer, B., Stellingwerff, T., Zaltas, E., & Jeukendrup, A.E. (2010a). CHO oxidation from a CHO gel compared with a drink during exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 42(11), 2038-2045. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181e0efe6

Pfeiffer, B., Stellingwerff, T., Zaltas, E., & Jeukendrup, A.E. (2010b). Oxidation of solid versus liquid CHO sources during exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 42(11), 2030-2037. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181e0efc9

Phillips, S.M., Turner, A.P., Gray, S., Sanderson, M.F. &Sproule, J. (2010). Ingesting a 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution improves endurance capacity, but not sprint performance, during intermittent, high-intensity shuttle running in adolescent team games players aged 12-14 years. Eur J Appl Physiol, 109(5):811-821. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-010-1404-z

Phillips, S.M., Turner, A.P., Sanderson, M.F. &Sproule, J. (2012) Carbohydrate gel ingestion significantly improves the intermittent endurance capacity, but not sprint performance, of adolescent team games players during a simulated team games protocol. Eur J Appl Physiol112(3):1133-1141. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-011-2067-0

Rauch, H.G., Hawley, J.A., Woodey, M., Noakes, T.D. & Dennis, S.C. (1999). Effects of ingesting a sports bar versus glucose polymer on substrate utilisation and ultra-endurance performance. Int J Sports Med, 20(4), 252-257. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-971126

Robergs, R.A., McMinn, S.B., Mermier, C., Leadbetter, G., 3rd, Ruby, B. & Quinn, C. (1998). Blood glucose and glucoregulatory hormone responses to solid and liquid carbohydrate ingestion during exercise. Int J Sport Nutr, 8(1), 70-83. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsn.8.1.70

Rodriguez, N.R., DiMarco, N.M. & Langley, S. (2009). Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance. J Am Diet Assoc, 109(3), 509-527. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2009.01.005

Rogers, J., Summers, R.W. & Lambert, G.P. (2005). Gastric emptying and intestinal absorption of a low-carbohydrate sport drink during exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 15(3), 220-235. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.15.3.220

Ryan, A.J., Lambert, G.P., Shi, X., Chang, R.T., Summers, R.W. & Gisolfi, C.V. (1998). Effect of hypohydration on gastric emptying and intestinal absorption during exercise. J Appl Physiol, 84(5), 1581-1588. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1998.84.5.1581

Sawka, M.N., Burke, L.M., Eichner, E.R., Maughan, R.J., Montain, S.J.& Stachenfeld, N.S. (2007). American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 39(2), 377-390.

Schulze, K. (2006). Imaging and modelling of digestion in the stomach and the duodenum. Neurogastroenterol Motil, 18(3), 172-183. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2982.2006.00759.x

Sechi, L.A. & Bartoli, E. (1996). Molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in arterial hypertension. Blood Press Suppl, 1, 47-54.

Shephard, R.J. (1988) PAR-Q, Canadian Home Fitness Test and exercise screening alternatives. Sports Med, 5(3), 185-195.


Silva, R.P., Altoé, J.L., & Marins, J.C.B. (2009). Relevância da temperatura e do esvaziamento gástrico de líquidos consumidos por praticantes de atividade física. Rev Nutr, 22(5), 755-765. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1415-52732009000500016

Silva, R.P., Mundel, T., Altoé, J.L., Saldanha, M.R., Ferreira, F.G. & Marins, J.C.B. (2010). Preexercise urine specific gravity and fluid intake during one-hour running in a thermoneutral environment – a randomized cross-over study. J Sports Sci Med, 9, 464-471.

Soares, J.L.M.F., Pasqualotto, A.C., Rosa, D.D. & Leite, V.R. (2002). Métodos diagnósticos: consulta rápida. São Paulo: Artmed.

Stannard, S.R., Constantini, N.W. & Miller, J.C. (2000). The effect of glycemic index on plasma glucose and lactate levels during incremental exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 10(1), 51-61. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.10.1.51

Vincent, R., Roberts, A., Frier, M., Perkins, A.C., MacDonald, I. A. & Spiller, R.C. (1995). Effect of bran particle size on gastric emptying and small bowel transit in humans: a scintigraphic study. Gut, 37(2), 216-219. https://doi.org/10.1136/gut.37.2.216

Vrijens, D.M.& Rehrer, N.J. (1999). Sodium-free fluid ingestion decreases plasma sodium during exercise in the heat. J Appl Physiol, 86(6), 1847- 1851. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1999.86.6.1847

Yanagisawa, K., Ito, O., Nagai, S. &Onishi, S. (2012) Electrolytecarbohydrate beverage prevents water loss in the early stage of high altitude training. J Med Invest, 59(1-2):102-10. https://doi.org/10.2152/jmi.59.102