Prevalidación de un test de equilibrio en tiro olímpico sin armas / Prevalidation of Body Sway Shooting Test Without the Use of Weapons

D. Mon, M.S. Zakynthinaki, C.A. Cordente, M.I. Barriopedro, J. Sampedro


El principal objetivo de este estudio es realizar un estudio previo a la validación de un test de medición del equilibrio en tiro olímpico sin el uso de la pistola. Para ello, se han comparado los resultados del análisis del movimiento del centro de presiones (CP) de dos pruebas de equilibrio estático: en la primera prueba se usó una mancuerna para simular la acción de disparo, mientras que en la segunda se usó la pistola. Se encontró una fuerte correlación entre los dos test en todas las variables del CP y una correlación lineal inversa entre el peso corporal y los movimientos del CP. No se encontró relación alguna entre los movimientos del CP y el rendimiento deportivo. El estudio concluye que el test con mancuerna puede ser válido para la medición del equilibrio específico en tiro olímpico y se recomienda profundizar en el estudio con una muestra de mayor tamaño.

PALABRAS CLAVE: Tiro olímpico, pistola, equilibrio, centro de presiones, mancuerna.



The main objective of the present work is the pre-validation of a test able to provide reliable body sway measurements in Olympic shooting, without the use of a pistol. For this reason the results of the analysis of the body sway data of two static bipodal balance tests have been compared: during the first a dumbbell was used to simulate shooting, while for the second test a pistol was used. A strong correlation between the two tests regarding all variables was found. A statistically significant inverse linear correlation was also found between body weight and the movements of the COP (centre of pressure). No statistically significant relations were found between the movements of the COP and performance. The study concludes that dumbbell tests could be perfectly reliable for measuring specific body sway on Olympic shooting. Future studies on the validation of the same test with larger sample size are recommended.

KEY WORDS: Olympic shooting, pistol, body sway, centre of pressure, dumbbell.

Texto completo:



Ball, K. A., Best, R. J., & Wrigley, T. V. (2003). Inter- and intra-individual analysis in elite sport: Pistol shooting. J Appl Biomech, 19(1), 28-38.

Belinchon, F. (2010). Estudio médico deportivo de las modalidades de tiro olímpico. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid.

Clark, R. A., Bryant, A. L., Pua, Y., McCrory, P., Bennell, K., & Hunt, M. (2010). Validity and reliability of the Nintendo Wii Balance Board for assessment of standing balance. Gait & Posture, 31(3), 307-310.

Era, P., Konttinen, N., Mehto, P., Saarela, P., & Lyytinen, H. (1996). Postural stability and skilled performance--a study on top-level and naive rifle shooters. J Biomech, 29(3), 301-306.

Goonetilleke, R. S., Hoffmann, E. R., & Lau, W. C. (2009). Pistol shooting accuracy as dependent on experience, eyes being opened and available viewing time. Applied Ergonomics, 40(3), 500-508. doi: 10.1016/j.apergo.2008.09.005

Gulbinskienė, V., & Skarbalius, A. (2009). Peculiarities of investigated characteristics of lithuanian pistol and rifle shooters´ training and sport performance. Ugdymas Kuno Kultura, 21.

Hawkins, R. (2011). Identifying mechanic measures that best predict air-pistol shooting performance. Int J Perform Anal Sport, 11(3), 499-509.

Hue, O., Simoneau, M., Marcotte, J., Berrigan, F., Doré, J., Marceau, P., Teasdale, N. (2007). Body weight is a strong predictor of postural stability. Gait Posture, 26(1), 32-38.

King, A. C., Challis, J. H., Bartok, C., Costigan, F. A., & Newell, K. M. (2011). Obesity, mechanical and strength relationships to postural control in adolescence. Gait Posture.

Krasilshchikov, O., Zuraidee, E., & Singh, R. (2007). Effect of general and auxiliary conditioning on specific fitness of young pistol and rifle shooters. Asian J. Exerc. Sport Sci, 4, 01-06.

Ku, P., Abu Osman, N., Yusof, A., & Wan Abas, W. (2012). Biomechanical evaluation of the relationship between postural control and body mass index. Journal of biomechanics, 45(9), 1638-1642.

Lakie, M. (2010). The influence of muscle tremor on shooting performance. Experimental Physiology, 95(3), 441-450.

Mason, B., Cowan, L., & Gonczol, T. (1990). Factors affecting accuracy in pistol shooting. Excel, 6, 2-6.

Mononen, K., Konttinen, N., Viitasalo, J., & Era, P. (2007). Relationships between postural balance, rifle stability and shooting accuracy among novice rifle shooters. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 17(2), 180-185.

Niinimaa, V., & McAvoy, T. (1983). Influence of exercise on body sway in the standing rifle shooting position. Can J Appl Sport Sci, 8(1), 30.

Pellegrini, B., & Schena, F. (2005). Characterization of arm-gun movement during air pistol aiming phase. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 45(4), 467-475.

Pinsault, N., & Vuillerme, N. (2009). Test-retest reliability of centre of foot pressure measures to assess postural control during unperturbed stance. Med Eng Phys, 31, 276-286.

Reinkemeier, H., Bühlmann, G., & Konietzny, A. (2006). Olympisches Pistolen-Schießen: Technik, Training, Taktik, Psyche, Waffen ; ein Lehr- und Übungsbuch zum sportlichen Schießen mit der Luftpistole, der Sportpistole und der freien Pistole: MEC High Tech Shooting Equipment.

RFEDETO. (2009). Reglamento Técnico Especial para nuevas modalidades de Pistola y Carabina A.C. (Juv, Cad, Inf, Ale). Madrid: Real Federación Española de Tiro Olímpico.

RFEDETO. (2012a). Reglamento Técnico Especial para Pistola. Madrid: Real Federación Española de Tiro Olímpico.

RFEDETO. (2012b). Reglamento Técnico General para todas las Modalidades de Tiro (2009 ed.). Madrid: Real Federación Española de Tiro Olímpico.

Tang, W. T., Zhang, W. Y., Huang, C. C., Young, M. S., & Hwang, I. S. (2008). Postural tremor and control of the upper limb in air pistol shooters. J Sports Sci, 26(14), 1579-1587.

Viitasalo, J., Era, P., Konttinen, N., Mononen, K., Mononen, H., Norvapalo, K., & Rintakoski, E. (1999). The posture steadiness of running target shooters of different skill levels. Kinesiology, 31, 11.

Viitasalo, J., Era, P., Mononen, H., Norvapalo, K., & Rintakoski, E. (1998). Effects of footwear on posture control of running target shooters. Int J Sports Sci Coach, 3(2), 3-6.

Zatsiorsky, V., & Aktov, A. (1990). Biomechanics of highly precise movements: the aiming process in air rifle shooting. J Biomech, 23 Suppl 1, 35-41.


Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.