Núm. 43 (2020): La seguridad humana 25 años después
Fragmentos

Seguridad Humana: vincular desarrollo y seguridad en una era de terror

Mark DUFFIELD
Universidad de Bristol (UK)
Biografía
Publicado febrero 5, 2020

Palabras clave:

Seguridad humana, desarrollo, terrorismo, biopolítica
Cómo citar
DUFFIELD, M. (2020). Seguridad Humana: vincular desarrollo y seguridad en una era de terror. Relaciones Internacionales, (43), 11-32. https://doi.org/10.15366/relacionesinternacionales2020.43.001

Resumen

La seguridad humana es comúnmente entendida como la priorización de la seguridad de las personas, especialmente su bienestar social, seguridad y calidad de vida, por encima de la seguridad de los estados. Sin embargo, lejos de examinar la seguridad humana como una condición medible o específica, el objetivo de este artículo es indagar cómo la seguridad humana —como tecnología de gobernanza— determina la forma en que las poblaciones que viven en los territorios de estados ineficaces son comprendidas, diferenciadas y validadas por las instituciones de cooperación provenientes de los países eficaces. Para conseguirlo, primero definirá el término desarrollo desde una perspectiva biopolítica, es decir, como una tecnología de seguridad orientada a promover la vida de poblaciones que —comparadas con los habitantes de sociedades desarrolladas— están en esencia "no aseguradas". Para este artículo es de especial interés examinar cómo la seguridad humana, entendida como una relación de gobernanza, ha continuado evolucionando de la mano de la guerra contra el terrorismo. Hacia finales de la década de los noventa, la seguridad humana condensaba una visión que integraba las redes de ayuda existentes en un sistema internacional de intervención coordinado, capaz de complementar los esfuerzos de los estados ineficaces para brindar seguridad a sus ciudadanos y a sus economías. Comparada con esta noción más universalista de seguridad humana, en la que desarrollo y seguridad se entendían como “diferentes pero iguales”, la guerra contra el terrorismo ha profundizado la interconexión entre desarrollo y seguridad. En particular, está reenfocando los recursos de cooperación hacia aquellas subpoblaciones, regiones y asuntos que se consideran un riesgo para la seguridad nacional de los estados desarrollados. Mientras algunas organizaciones no gubernamentales (ONG) se preocupan por las crecientes amenazas a su independencia, para otras han surgido nuevas posibilidades y oportunidades para la interacción estatal/no-estatal.

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