Historia, agencia y eurocentrismo en la Escuela Inglesa

Pedro DUTRA SALGADO

Resumen


Trabajos recientes han logrado renovar la popularidad de la Escuela Inglesa dentro de la disciplina de Relaciones Internacionales mediante la revisión de algunos de sus elementos centrales. Las innovaciones en el marco teórico han dado como resultado diferencias importantes respecto al trabajo clásico del Comité Británico. Pese a ello, algunas de sus limitaciones siguen vigentes ya que continúa centrándose en una perspectiva histórica eurocentrista. En este artículo abordo dos contribuciones recientes al corpus de la Escuela Inglesa: la nueva narrativa de globalización de la sociedad internacional, y el giro a la sociología procesual. Mediante el análisis de estas contribuciones argumento que, al no presentar una concepción sistemática de agencia y cambio histórico, la historia queda relegada a un rol secundario en su proceso explicativo: es invocada como un conjunto de ejemplos que o confirman o amplían la concepción teórica de la sociedad internacional o su expansión. Este rol secundario de la historia ampara el eurocentrismo en la teoría de las Relaciones Internacionales ya que incorpora agencias y procesos no europeos sin cuestionar la teoría que se produjo en su ausencia. En contraste, abogo por una concepción radicalmente historicista de la teoría, partiendo de un impulso particular del historicismo en la tradición del marxismo político. Este historicismo radical permite cambiar el enfoque de procesos generales y sus resultados, para considerar las muchas agencias en conflicto que desempeñan un papel en las transformaciones de la política internacional.

Palabras clave


Sociedad Internacional; Escuela Inglesa, Sociología Procesal; Marxismo Político; Sociología Histórica

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15366/relacionesinternacionales2019.41.002

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