Hacia la consolidación: La lucha no violenta como medio para la ciudadanía democrática | On consolidation: Nonviolent struggle as resource for democratic citizenship

Markus BAYER

Resumen


Tras las Revoluciones de Colores y la Primavera Árabe, las investigaciones que vinculan la resistencia no violenta (RNV) y la democratización se incrementaron notablemente. Sin embargo, los estudios sobre su efecto en la consolidación democrática siguen siendo escasos. A través de una interpretación neotocquevilleana de democracia, este artículo desarrolla que las protestas de RNV contra gobiernos autoritarios proporcionan recursos importantes para el desarrollo de una ciudadanía democrática y pueden afectar positivamente a la democratización. Como consecuencia de estas luchas, la agencia individual de cada ciudadano aumenta, lo que les permite participar y resistir las represiones si es preciso. A nivel colectivo los activistas participantes sobrepasan sus límites, y la agencia colectiva de toda la población se ve influenciada de forma sostenible al crear una narrativa común sobre el éxito de la lucha. El triunfo de estos hitos simbólicos brinda la oportunidad de reconectar con un movimiento de masas renovado. Por último, estas movilizaciones están integradas en un contexto internacional: las olas de protestas como la Primavera Árabe generan redes internacionales de activistas y simpatizantes.

 

After the Colour Revolutions and the Arab Spring the research, linking nonviolent resistance (NVR) and democratisation increased drastically. Nevertheless, research focussing on the effect on democratic consolidation remains scarce. Based on a neo-Tocquevillean understanding of democracy, I argue that NVR against authoritarian rule provides important resources for the development of democratic citizenship and can positively affect democratisation. Because of the struggle for democracy, the individual agency of each citizen rises, enabling him/her to participate and to resist backlashes if necessary. On a collective level and transgressing the circle of the participating activist, the collective agency of the whole population is sustainably affected in creating a collective narrative of the successful struggle of the people. These successful and iconic events provide opportunities to reconnect renewed mass mobilization. Finally yet importantly, such movements are embedded into an international context. Waves of contention like the Arab Spring leave international networks of activists and supporters.


Palabras clave


Resistencia no violenta; supervivencia de la democracia; ciudadanía; agencia; memoria colectiva; Nonviolent resistance; democratic survival; citizenship; agency; collective memory

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Referencias


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15366/relacionesinternacionales2018.39.003

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