¿PUEDEN LOS PADRES DE ESTUDIANTES DE 15 AÑOS INFLUIR EN SU RENDIMIENTO EN CIENCIAS?

Elisa Caponera, Carlo Di Chiacchio, Sabrina Greco, Laura Palmerio

Resumen


El objetivo principal de este estudio ha sido evaluar la relación entre la participación parental y el rendimiento de los alumnos en ciencia utilizando un enfoque de la modelización de ecuaciones estructurales (SEM).

Puesto que no se puede eliminar las diferencias en la situación económica, social y cultural de los estudiantes (ESCS), es vital entender que estrategia puede ser más eficiente para promover la equidad en los sistemas escolares diferentes. Entre las estrategias posibles, la participación parental recientemente se ha concebido como un factor relevante. Se analiza los datos de una muestra representativa de la participación de los estudiantes italianos de 15 años en las evaluaciones de PISA 2015. Los datos de Italia se han sido comparados con los datos de otros países de la UE en la zona del Mediterráneo que son culturalmente similares a Italia y han participado en las encuestas parentales opcionales, concretamente Francia, Malta, Portugal y España. Alumnos han completado las pruebas de PISA y sus padres – las encuestas opcionales que incluían las preguntas sobre la ESCS, las actitudes y creencias con respeto a ciencia y sus expectativas con respeto a las trayectorias educativas de sus hijos.

El modelo ha sido satisfactorio para explicar los resultados de pruebas de PISA en ciencia: el modelo predicado ha mostrado un buen ajuste a los datos con 25% de la variación explicada. Los resultados han mostrado que la ESCS contribuye en la predicción del rendimiento en ciencia; más aún los resultados manifiestan los efectos positivos y significantes de los factores como la participación parental en la intermediación de las relaciones entre la ESCS y el rendimiento de las pruebas de PISA, sobre todo en Francia, Malta y Portugal. Aunque los efectos de mediación no han sido grandes, pero han sido estadísticamente significados para todos los países que consideran y sugieren que la participación parental asume un papel de mediación en efectos de la ESCS en el rendimiento en ciencia, lo que se evidencia por los efectos indirectos significantes observados en el análisis de SEM. La participación parental incrementada se puede considerar como una intervención útil para reducir las diferencias relacionadas a la ESCS en el rendimiento escolar.


Palabras clave


PISA; rendimiento científico; implicación de padres en la escuela; SEM; mediación

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15366/jospoe2019.9.006

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Journal of Supranational Policies of Education (JoSPoE)

DOI: 10.15366/jospoe

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