Núm. 1 (2013): Política educativa supranacional: Fundamentos y métodos
Monográfico

Globalization and Comparative Education Research: Misconceptions and Applications of Neo-Institutional Theory

Publicado julio 21, 2016

Resumen

ABSTRACT

As globalization studies have become central to comparative education research, neo-institutional theory has become the focus of many debates among comparative education researchers investigating the effects of globalization on education. Yet, in spite of this focus, many comparative education researchers have difficulty interpreting neo-institutional theory and how it frames comparative education research. In particular, misconceptions persist related to which strand of neo-institutional theory is the most relevant to comparative education research, and whether or not neo-institutional theory advocates for the homogenization of education and society worldwide. This article addresses these misconceptions by explaining the theory in relation to comparative education research using a specific empirical case as an example. The documented theoretical and methodological diversity within the field of comparative education supports the assertion that neo-institutional theory provides a productive framework for understanding and interpreting comparative education phenomena, but that complementary approaches and methods are useful as well.

Key words: globalization, neo-institutional theory, comparative education research, Saudi Arabia, Tatweer Project, information and community technology.

 

RESUMEN

La teoría neo-institucionalista se ha ubicado en el centro de los debates académicos debido al avance y proliferación de los estudios en educación comparada que sitúan los análisis en el en el marco del proceso de globalización. Sin embargo, a pesar de su relevancia para la educación comparada, la teoría neo-institucionalista sigue generando incertidumbre en cuanto a su empleo e interpretación en la investigación educativa comparada. Parte de esta incertidumbre proviene de la malinterpretación de sus principios, variantes y de su capacidad explicativa. Además, aún persisten varios malentendidos sobre el neo-institucionalismo como por ejemplo, la creencia que sostiene que la versión conocida como la “cultura global” es la única variante del neoinstitucionalismo relevante a la investigación educativa comparada. Otra suposición errónea es la que considera que la homogeneización cultural global es uno de los objetivos avanzados por los investigadores que aplican el marco teórico neo-institucional para explicar los fenómenos educativos comparados. Este artículo tiene como propósito abordar esos malentendidos a través de un caso de estudio que utilizaremos como ejemplo. El mismo nos permitirá no sólo clarificar los errores sobre la teoría neo-institucionalista sino también demostrar una de las tantas aplicaciones posibles a la investigación comparada en educación. Los resultados nos permiten sostener que las distintas variantes del marco teórico neo-institucionalista son útiles como acercamiento a la problemática de la educación comparada. De la misma forma también dan cuenta de la necesidad de utilizar métodos y formas de aproximación al conocimiento en forma complementaria. La probada riqueza y diversidad teórica y metodológica del neoinstitucionalismo en el campo de la educación comparada asevera fehacientemente que el neoinstitucionalismo nos provee de un marco teórico productivo para el entendimiento e interpretación de los fenómenos educativos comparados.

Palabras clave: globalización, teoría neo-institucionalista, investigación en educación comparada, Arabia Saudita, Projecto Tatweer, información y comunidad tecnológica.

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