Animal remains from Neolithic Lameiras, Sintra: the earliest domesticated sheep, goat, cattle and pigs in Portugal and some notes on their evolution

Simon J.M. Davis, Sónia Gabriel, Teresa Simões

Resumen


RESUMEN: La fauna neolítica de Lameiras incluye numerosas ovejas. Muchas pudieron ser identificadas al aplicar los criterios descritos por el fallecido J. Boessneck y por métodos métri- cos. Los huesos de oveja de los contextos del Neolítico temprano, algunos datados a través del C14, apuntan a la llegada de esta especie hacia el 5.450 cal. D.C. 3.000 años después de su domes- ticación a 5.000 km de distancia hacia el Oriente. De este modo, las ovejas fueron transportadas a un ritmo de 1,6 km al año lo cual es considerablemente más rápido que lo sugerido por la llamada teoría de la “ola de avance”. Por ello, parece probable que parte de este viaje se haya llevado    a cabo en barco. La mayoría de los restos de mamíferos identificados en Lameiras representan formas domésticas que además de la oveja y alguna cabra incorporan vacuno y porcino. Desde un punto de vista zooarqueológico existe poca diferencia entre el Neolítico temprano y tardío. Sin embargo, el espectro de especies neolíticas contrasta con el de una pequeña muestra en el nivel musteriense que subyace a estos depósitos así como a otras muestras preneoliticas en Portugal. Es posible que en el sur de Portugal la adopción de la práctica ganadera haya sido rápida. Los valores de los restos de Canis, Bos, Ovis, Capra y Sus apuntan a varios momentos en los cuales los animales sufrieron cambios de tamaño, datos que encajan con el corpus osteométrico que se viene reco- pilando para el sector sudoccidental de la Península Ibérica. Bos, Capra y Canis eran considerablemente más grandes en el Pleistoceno, una diferencia de talla ahora documentada en otras regiones. Además de la reducción de tamaño durante la transición Pleistoceno-Holoceno estas especies sufrieron otra adicional asociada con su proceso de domesticación. Es posible que tanto uros como jabalíes recuperasen parte de sus antiguas tallas al concluir el Neolítico. Quizás ello se deba a una relajación en la presión de caza operada tras el Mesolítico. Las ovejas, cabras y vacas domésticas aumentaron de tamaño en épocas más recientes reflejando posiblemente mejoras en las prácticas pecuarias de musulmanes y cristianos.

 

PALABRAS CLAVE: FAUNA, ANIMALES DOMÉSTICOS, NEOLÍTICO, PORTUGAL, EVOLUCIÓN

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15366/archaeofauna2018.27.006

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Archaeofauna, International Journal of Archaeozoology

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